Efficacy of Monitoring and Evaluation Function in Achieving Project Success in Kenya: A Conceptual Framework
Science Journal of Business and Management
Volume 3, Issue 3, June 2015, Pages: 82-94
Received: May 15, 2015; Accepted: May 20, 2015; Published: Jun. 2, 2015
Views 8227      Downloads 425
Charles G. Kamau, Faculty of Finance & Administrative sciences, Almadinah International University, Shah Alam, Malaysia
Humam Bin Mohamed, Faculty of Finance & Administrative sciences, Almadinah International University, Shah Alam, Malaysia
Article Tools
Follow on us
This paper sets out to review literature on the efficacy of monitoring and evaluation in achieving project success in Kenya. Several studies have been carried out with an aim of determining the critical success factors (CSFs) which contribute to project success. The analysis of these studies shows a particular pattern of events. Some CSFs appears consistently in a number of studies. One such factor is the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) function. The researcher used literature review approach to analyze the factors related to M&E influencing project success. All the factors identified were grouped into four main categories which are: Strength of M&E team, monitoring approach adopted, political influence and project lifecycle stage. The study further identified management support as a mediating factor between M&E and the Project Success. A good M&E without management support is likely not to succeed.
Monitoring and Evaluation, Project Success, Conceptual Framework, Management Support, Kenya
To cite this article
Charles G. Kamau, Humam Bin Mohamed, Efficacy of Monitoring and Evaluation Function in Achieving Project Success in Kenya: A Conceptual Framework, Science Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2015, pp. 82-94. doi: 10.11648/j.sjbm.20150303.14
Abdul-Rahman, H., Wang, C., & Muhammad, N. A. B. (2011). Project performance monitoring methods used in Malaysia and perspectives of introducing EVA as a standard approach. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 17(3), 445-455.
Al-Tmeemy, S. M. H. M., Abdul-Rahman, H., & Harun, Z. (2011). Future criteria for success of building projects in Malaysia. International Journal of Project Management, 29(3), 337-348.
Alhyari, S., Alazab, M., Venkatraman, S., Alazab, M. and Alazab, A. (2013) "Performance evaluation of e-government services using balanced scorecard: An empirical study in Jordan", Benchmarking: An International Journal, 20 (4) 512 - 536
Alotaibi, M. (2011). Evaluation of contractor performance for pre-selection in the Kingdom of Saudi (Doctoral dissertation). Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK.
Andersen, E. S., Birchall, D., Jessen, A. S. and Money, A. H. (200). Exploring Project Success. Baltic Journal of Management, 1 (2) 127 – 147
Ara, A., & Al-Mudimigh, A. S. (2011). The Role and Impact of Project Management in ERP project implementation life cycle. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 11(5) 6-10.
Arancon, R. N. (Ed.). (1997). Environmentally Friendly Coconut and Coconut Products: Proceedings of the XXXIV COCOTECH Meeting, 14-18 July 1997, Manila, Philippines. Asian and Pacific Coconut Community.
Aritua, B., Smith, N. J., & Bower, D. (2009). Construction client multi-projects–A complex adaptive systems perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 27(1), 72-79.
Asaka, C. N., Aila, F. O., Odera, O., & Abongo, B. E. (2012) Projects selection and management implications in Kenyan local authorities. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 1 (10) 65-75
Atencio, M. (2012). A critical success factors framework that includes leadership competencies for successful delivery of projects (Doctoral dissertation). University of Salford. Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database. (http://usir.salford.ac.uk/30638/)
Atieno, R. (2014). Policy Brief 014: The limits of success: The case of dairy sector in Kenya. Available from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEoQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.future-agricultures.org%2Fworkshop-resources%2Fdoc_download%2F143-the-limits-of-success-the-case-of-the-dairy-sector-in-kenya&ei=jSF4U7uIKcjqPPHfgPgK&usg=AFQjCNFnUMYnzJaiJeVjT1C0314oU1adxg&bvm=bv.66917471,d.bGE, Accessed 18-5-2014.
Attarzadeh, I., & Ow, S. H. (2008) Modern Project Management: Essential Skills and Techniques. Communications of the IBIMA 2, 1-9
Azimi, R., Lee, S., AbouRizk, S. M., & Alvanchi, A. (2011). A framework for an automated and integrated project monitoring and control system for steel fabrication projects. Automation in Construction, 20(1), 88-97.
Babbie, Earl R. (2012) The practice of social research. Belmont, USA: Cengage Learning.
Baker, B. N., Murphy, D. C. and Fisher, D. (1988). Factors affecting project success In: Cleland DI, King WR, editors. Project management handbook. (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley.
Baker, B. N., Murphy, D. C., & Fisher, D. (2008). Factors affecting project success. Project Management Handbook, Second Edition, 902-919.
Bamberger, Michael and Hewitt, Eleanor. World Bank Technical Paper no 53. (Washington, D.C.: 1986)
Baron, R. M. and Kenny, D. A. (1986) "The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research – Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 51(6), pp. 1173–1182
Besner, C., & Hobbs, B. (2008). Project management practice, generic or contextual: A reality check. Project Management Journal, 39(1), 16-33.
Bewick, V., Cheek, L., & Ball, J. (2003). Statistics review 8: Qualitative data–tests of association. Critical care, 8(1), 46.
Bredillet, C. N. (2008). Exploring research in project management: Nine schools of project management research (part 4). Project Management Journal, 39(1), 2-6.
Burgess, R., Jedwab, R., Miguel, E., & Morjaria, A. (2013). The Value of Democracy: Evidence from Road Building in Kenya (No. w19398). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Burke, R. (2013). Project management: planning and control techniques.
Centre for Learning on Evaluation and Results (CLEAR) Initiative at Wits. (2013) Demand and Supply: Monitoring, Evaluation, and Performance Management Information and Services In Anglophone Sub-Saharan Africa, A Synthesis of Nine Studies. Johannesburg, South Africa: Graduate School of Public and Development Management, University of Witwatersrand.
Chan APC, Scott D, Chan APL. Factors affecting the success of a construction project. J Construct Eng Manage 2004; 130(1):153–5.
Chan, A. (2001). Framework for measuring success of construction projects.
Chapman, A. “project management, tools, process, plans and project planning tips” available from http://www.businessballs.com/project.htm, accessed 8-3-2014.
Cheng, M. Y., Hoang, N. D., Roy, A. F., & Wu, Y. W. (2012). A novel time-depended evolutionary fuzzy SVM inference model for estimating construction project at completion. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 25(4), 744-752.
Cheruiyot, P. K., & Kwasira, J. (2013). An assessment of devolving human resource function in Kenya: a case study of Nakuru County. International Journal of Human Resource Management.
Chin, C. M. M. (2012). Development of a project management methodology for use in a university-industry collaborative research environment (Doctoral dissertation). University of Nottingham , Semenyih Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Cuellar, M. J. (2013). The Nature of Project Success.
Cusworth, J. W., & Franks, T. R. (2013). Managing projects in developing countries. Routledge.
Dvir, D., 2005. Transferring projects to their final users: the effect of planning and preparations for commissioning on project success. International Journal of Project Management 23, 257–265.
Georgieva, S., & Allan, G. (2008). Best Practices in Project Management Through a Grounded Theory Lens. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 43-52
Guide, A. (2001). PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE (PMBOK® GUIDE). In Project Management Institute.
Gwadoya, R. A. (2012). Factors influencing effective implementation of monitoring and evaluation practices in donor funded projects in Kenya: a case of Turkana District (Masters dissertation). Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
Hassan, A. I. (2013) An Investigation of Structural Capacity as a Component of Monitoring and Evaluation in Project Success of Road Construction Projects in Kenya. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 03 (08), 443-452
Hughes, S. W., Tippett, D. D., & Thomas, W. K. (2004). Measuring Project Success in the Construction Industry. Engineering Management Journal, 16(3) 31-37.
Hummelbrunner, R. (2010). Beyond Logframe: Critique, variations and alternatives. Beyond logframe; Using systems concepts in evaluation, 1.
Hwang, B. and Lim, E. (2013). ”Critical Success Factors for Key Project Players and Objectives: Case Study of Singapore.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 139(2), 204–215.
Isaac, S., & Navon, R. (2013). Can project monitoring and control be fully automated?. Construction Management and Economics, (ahead-of-print), 1-11.
Ika, L. A. (2009). Project success as a topic in project management journals. Project Management Journal, 40(4), 6-19.
Ika, L. A. (2012). Project management for development in Africa: why projects are failing and what can be done about it. Project Management Journal, 43(4), 27-41.
Ika, L. A., Diallo, A., & Thuillier, D. (2012). Critical success factors for World Bank projects: an empirical investigation. International Journal of Project Management, 30(1), 105-116.
Ika, L. A., Diallo, A., & Thuillier, D. (2010). Project management in the international development industry: the project coordinator's perspective. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 3(1), 61-93.
Jetu, F. T., & Riedl, R. (2013). Cultural values influencing project team success: An empirical investigation in Ethiopia. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 6(3), 425-456.
Juli, T. (2010). Leadership principles for project success. CRC Press.
Kahilu, D. (2010). Monitoring and evaluation report of "the impact of information and communication technology service (ICTs) among end users in the ministry of agriculture and cooperatives in Zambia". Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 3(7), 302-311
Kantai, W. (2010). Lessons for Devolution: A Country Comparative Study in Devolution in Kenya, Prospects, Challenges and the Future. IEA Research Paper, (24).
Kariungi, S. M. (2014). Determinants of Timely Completion of Projects in Kenya: A Case of Kenya Power and Lighting Company, Thika. ABC Journal of Advanced Research, 3(2), 9-19.
Khang, D. B., & Moe, T. L. (2008). Success criteria and factors for international development projects: A life‐cycle‐based framework. Project Management Journal, 39(1), 72-84.
Kibebe, L. W., & Mwirigi, P. W. (2014). Selected Factors Influencing Effective Implementation of Constituency Development Fund (CDF) Projects in Kimilili Constituency, Bungoma County, Kenya. International Journal of Science and Research, 3 (1), 44-48
Kimando, L. N., Njogu, G. W., & Kihoro, J. M. (2012). Factors Affecting the Success of Youth Enterprise Development Funded Projects in Kenya; A Survey of Kigumo District Muranga County. International Journal of Business & Commerce, 1(10), 61-81.
Kline P (1999) The handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Kontinen, T., & Robinson-Moncada, S. (2014). Towards new practices of monitoring in World Vision Finland: Pathways of empowerment.
Kothari, C. R. (2008). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. (2nd Ed), Nairobi, Kenya: New Age International Publishers.
Kyriakopoulos, G. L. (2011). Project Management (PM) Prosperity: A Second Half of the 20th Century Literature Review. Journal of Management and Sustainability, 1 (1), 64-81.
Ling, F. Y. Y., Low, S. P., Wang, S. Q., & Lim, H. H. (2009). Key project management practices affecting Singaporean firms’ project performance in China. International Journal of Project Management, 27(1), 59-71.
Magondu, A. (2013). Factors Influencing Implementation Of Monitoring And Evaluation In Hiv Research Projects, A Case Of Kenya Aids Vaccine Initiative (Kavi) (Masters dissertation). University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Malach-Pines, A., Dvir, D., & Sadeh, A. (2009). Project manager-project (PM-P) fit and project success. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 29(3), 268-291.
Marangu, E. M. (2012). Factors influencing implementation of community based projects undertaken by the banking industry in Kenya. a case of Barclays Bank of Kenya (Masters dissertation). Kenyatta University, Nairobi,Kenya
Mbeche, I. M. (2011). Critical success factors of industrial and commercial projects in Kenya. Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa Journal, 1(1), 93-108.
Middleton, A. (2005). Logical Framework Analysis: A Planning Tool for Government Agencies, International Development Organizations, and Undergraduate Students. Undercurrent, 2(2), 41-47.
Miller, G. J., & Yang, K. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of research methods in public administration. CRC press.
Mladenovic, G., Vajdic, N., Wündsch, B., & Salaj, A. T. (2013). Use of Key performance indicators for PPP transport projects to meet stakeholders’ performance objectives. Built Environment Project and Asset Management, 3(2), 228-249.
Martinez, D. E. (2011). The Logical Framework Approach in Non-governmental Organizations. University of Alberta
Mono, O. R. (2013). Determinants of successful delivery of housing construction Projects in the Ministry of Housing in Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved from: http://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/6213
Mugenda, Abel Gitau (2008) Social Science Research; Theories and principles. Nairobi, Kenya: Applied Research & Training services.
Muhula, R. (2009). Horizontal inequalities and ethno-regional politics in Kenya. Kenya Studies Review, 1(1), 85-105.
Müller, R., & Turner, R. (2007). The influence of project managers on project success criteria and project success by type of project. European Management Journal, 25(4), 298-309.
Muriithi, N., & Crawford, L. (2003). Approaches to project management in Africa: implications for international development projects. International Journal of Project Management, 21(5), 309-319.
Mwala F.V. (2012). Effect of project monitoring on implementation of economic stimulus projects in education sector within Nairobi County, Kenya (Masters dissertation). Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
Myrick, D. (2013). A Logical Framework for Monitoring and Evaluation: A Pragmatic Approach to M&E. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(14), 423-428
Nachmias, David (1996) Research Methods in the social sciences, 5th Edition. London, UK: St Martins Press Inc.
Naidoo, I. A. (2011). The role of monitoring and evaluation in promoting good governance in South Africa: A case study of the Department of Social Development (Doctoral dissertation, University of Witwatersrand).
Ochieng, F., Chepkuto, P., Tubey, R., & Kuto, L. Y. (2012) Effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation of CDF projects in Kenya. A case of Ainamoi Constituency, 1(6), 186-194
Okello, D. (2010). The dynamics of political change and transition: civil society, governance and the culture of politics in Kenya. In V. Coelho and B. V. Lieres (eds.), Mobilizing for Democracy: Citizen Action and the Politics of Public Participation pp.199-219.. London: Zed Books.
Omari, A. O., Kaburi, S. N., & Sewe, T. (2013, February). CHANGE DILEMMA: A CASE OF STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT THROUGH DEVOLUTION IN KENYA. In Scientific Conference Proceedings. 491-499
Omari, E (2013) “Kenya’s white elephants” Daily Nation 3rd November 2013
Ondari, P. O., and Gekara , J. M. (2013) "Factors influencing successful completion of roads projects in Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship 1(6), 26-48.
Papke-Shields, K. E., Beise, C., & Quan, J. (2010). Do project managers practice what they preach, and does it matter to project success?. International Journal of Project Management, 28(7), 650-662.
Pequegnat, W., Stover, E., & Boyce, C. A. (1995). How to write a successful research grant application. A guide for social and behavioral scientists. New York, USA: Springer science + Business media
Peterson, F., & Fischer, M. (2009, April). Project Monitoring Methods Exploratory Case Analysis: Industry Responses. In Computing in Civil Engineering (2009) (pp. 105-114). ASCE.
Pinto, J. K. and Slevin, D. P. (1988) Critical success factors across the project life cycle. Project Management Journal, 19(3):67–75.
Pinto, J. K., & Slevin, D. P. (1988). 20 Critical Success Factors in Effective Project implementation. Project management handbook, 479: 167-190.
Pinto, J. K. (2000). Understanding the role of politics in successful project management. International Journal of Project Management, 18(2), 85-91.
Prabhakar, G. P.(2008). What is Project Success: A Literature Review. International Journal of Business and Management, 3 (9), 1-10.
Pretorius, S., Steyn, H., & Jordaan, J. C. (2012). Project management maturity and project management success in the engineering and construction industries in Southern Africa. South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, 23(3), 1-12.
Pretorius, S., Steyn, H., & Jordaan, J. C. (2012). Project management maturity and project management success in the engineering and construction industries in Southern Africa. South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, 23(3), 1-12.
Rasli, A. (2006). Data analysis and interpretation: A handbook for post graduate social sciences. Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia: Percetakan Info Meditasi.
Raymond, L., & Bergeron, F. (2008). Project management information systems: An empirical study of their impact on project managers and project success. International Journal of Project Management, 26(2), 213-220.
Republic of Kenya (RoK). (2010). Constitution of Kenya 2010.
Reynolds, J. H., Thompson, W. L., & Russell, B. (2011). Planning for success: identifying effective and efficient survey designs for monitoring. Biological Conservation, 144(5), 1278-1284.
Shukla, P. (2008), Essentials of Marketing Research. Frederiksberg: Ventus Publishing.
Sisk, T. (2003). History of project management. Berkely University.
Stem, C., Margoluis, R., Salafsky, N., & Brown, M. (2005). Monitoring and evaluation in conservation: a review of trends and approaches. Conservation Biology, 19(2), 295-309.
UNICEF Guide for Monitoring and Evaluation - Making a Difference. http://preval.org/documentos/00473.pdf
United Nations development programme (UNDP, 2002) evaluation office - Handbook on Monitoring and Evaluating for Results. New York, USA available from: http://web.undp.org/evaluation/documents/handbook/me-handbook.pdf
Walliman, N (2005) Your Research Project, 2nd Edition London, UK: Sage Publications
Ward, L. J. (2010) “Analysis of the Koins for Kenya andSelf Reliant Agriculture Projects in Mnyenzeni” available from http://www.koinsforkenya.org/forms/Analysis-of-SRA-Projects.pdf, accessed 27-02-2014
Warren, K. B. & Susan C. B. (1991) Women, Technology, and International Development Ideologies: Analyzing Feminist Voices. In Gender at the Crossroads: Feminist Anthropology in the Postmodern Era. Micaela di Leonardo, ed. Berkeley: University of California Press.;278-311.
World Bank (2007) “Monitoring and Evaluation: Tips for strengthening organizational capacity” Available from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTBELARUS/Resources/M&E.pdf, accessed 5-08-2014
Yang, J., Shen, G. Q., Ho, M., Drew, D. S., & Chan, A. P. (2009). Exploring critical success factors for stakeholder management in construction projects. Journal of civil engineering and management, 15(4), 337-348.
Yang, L. R., Huang, C. F., & Wu, K. S. (2011). The association among project manager's leadership style, teamwork and project success. International journal of project management, 29(3), 258-267.
Yong, Y. C., & Mustaffa, N. E. (2012). Analysis of factors critical to construction project success in Malaysia. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 19(5), 543-556.
Young, T. (2007). The Handbook of Project Management: A Practical Guide to Effective Policies and Proced. Kogan Page Publishers.
Zaccaro, S. J., Rittman, A. L., & Marks, M. A. (2002). Team leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 12(4), 451-483.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186