Critical Review of Literature on Cultural Diversity in the Work Place and Organizational Performance: A Research Agenda
Journal of Human Resource Management
Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2018, Pages: 9-17
Received: Jan. 8, 2018;
Accepted: Jan. 20, 2018;
Published: Feb. 15, 2018
Views 2657 Downloads 845
Emily Nyanchama Ayega, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
Stephen Muathe, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
Cultural diversity is what binds all groups of employees at all levels in a company. Cultural diversity calls for a type of organizational culture where all members can pursue their aspirations without being inhibited by gender, race, nationality or other qualities that are irrelevant to performance. The importance of the need to have the concept of managing diversity embraced by top managers has also been emphasized. A statement concerning diversity should always refer to certain facets such as age, gender, culture and disability. Scholars have not concentrated more on cultural diversity in the workplace and how it affects organizational performance, hence creating a gap. This study provides background knowledge on cultural diversity among employees at the workplace and provides measures of organizational performance. The study further brings out the study theories under theoretical review, which comprises the resource-based theory, behavioural theories and competency theory. This study reviewed various literatures on cultural diversity in the workplace and organizational performance and found that cultural diversity in the workplace is a formidable competitive weapon in an organization. The study recommends that organizations should have proper cultural diversity management since it enables an organization to achieve a competitive advantage, which in turn influences organizational performance. In addition, the paper recommends that organizations should effectively manage their cultural diversity. This is because it has been established that cultural diversity influences organizational performance.
Emily Nyanchama Ayega,
Critical Review of Literature on Cultural Diversity in the Work Place and Organizational Performance: A Research Agenda, Journal of Human Resource Management.
Vol. 6, No. 1,
2018, pp. 9-17.
Barney, J. B. (2011). The Future of Resource-Based Theory: Revitalization or Decline? Journal of Management 2011 37: 1299 originally published online 10 March 2011DOI: 10.1177/0149206310391805.
Brauer, M.,&Wiersema, M. (2012). “Industry Divestiture Waves: How a Firm’s Position Influences Investor Returns.” Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 55:1472–1492. Business History, 56(3), 372–390.
Carlson, O. (2014). Internationalization of the MBA curriculum and its impact on building students’ global competencies.
Dhakshayene, H., &Anneli, J. (2013). Cultural diversity in organizations: A study on the view and management on cultural diversity
Dike, P. (2013). The impact of workplace diversity on organizations.
Pugliese, A., &Bezemer, P. J., &Zattoni, A., &Huse, M., &van den Bosch, F. A. J. &Volberda, H. W. (2009). ‘Boards of Directors’ Contribution to Strategy.
Ghapanchi, A. H. (2014). Organizational Diagnosis in Project-Based Companies Challenges and Directions Volume: 4 issue: 2, Article first published online: May 30, 2014; Issue published: June 11, 2014 https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244014537498.
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (2010). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 250–279.
Ikama, A. (2010). Benefits and challenges of workplace diversity management: a case study of consultative group on international agricultural research (CGIAR) centres in Kenya organizations journal home page: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijintrel.
Karen, G. (2013). Managing a culturally diverse workforce: Diversity perspectives
Kauppila, O. P. (2015). When and How Does LMX Differentiation Influence Followers’ Work Outcomes? The Interactive Roles of One’s own LMX Status and Organizational Context Volume 69, Issue 2 Summer 2016 Pages 357–393.
Kogut, B., & Zander, U. (2012). ‘Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory of the Multinational Corporation’ Journal of International Business Studies, 4th quarter: 625– 45. Summary Notes5/25/09 H. Johnson/Michigan State University.
Lockett, A., & Wild, A. (2014). Bringing history (back) into the resource-based view.
Lundvall, B. A. (2010). National systems of innovation: Toward a theory of innovation and interactive learning (Vol. 2). Anthem Press.
Mayer, R. (2009). Multi-Media Learning, 2nd Ed. Cambridge University Press, NY.
McMahon, A. M. (2010). Does workplace diversity matter? A survey of empirical studies on diversity and firm performance, 2000-09. Journal of Diversity Management, 5(2), 37.
Moore, C. W., & Woodrow, P. J. (2010). Handbook of global and multicultural negotiation. John Wiley & Sons.
Murray, B. (2010). Brief profile on disability: Employment for social justice and a fair globalization.http://www.ilo.org/employment/Whatwedo/Publications/lang--en/docName--WCMS_140958/index.htm.
Nonaka, T., &Tayama, R. (2015). Theory of organizational knowledge creation: understanding the dynamic process of creating knowledge.
Nowak, D. J. (2012). Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature, 489, 427–430.
Nowok, B. (2013). ‘Does Migration Make You Happy? A Longitudinal Study of Internal Migration and Subjective Well-Being’ Environment and Planning A, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 986–1002. DOI: 10.1068/a45287.
Richard, P. J. (2015). Evolution theory of economic changehb71.n44 338.9'001 81-13455 aacr2 isbn 0-674-27228-5 (paper).
Teece, D. J. (2010). Explicating dynamic capabilities: The nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance, Strategic Management Journal theorizing about executive compensation. Journal of management (In Press) ISSN 1557-1211DOI: 10.1177/0149206312461054.
Tsoukas, H. (2016). An Introduction to the Special Issue on Managing Complexity Within and Across Organizational Boundaries (pages 129–131).
Tywoniak, J. (2017). Exploring the dynamics of project management office and portfolio management co-evolution: A routine lens. International Journal of Project Management. (In Press).
Wambari, M. N. (2014). Workplace diversity management effects on implementation of human resource management practices in the Ministry of Health, Kenya.
Wiersema, M. F., & Bowen, H. P. (2008). Corporate diversification: The impact of foreign competition, industry globalization, and product diversification. Strategic Management Journal, 29(2), 115–132.
Yen, K. (2012). Innovation, customer attachment source in retail service empirical research in day retail.
Penrose, E. T. (1959). The Theory of the Growth of the Firm. New York: John Wiley.
Pepper, A., Gore J. (2015). Behavioural Agency Theory: New Foundations for Theorizing About Executive Compensation. Journal of Management 2012. Originally published online 27 September 2012 DOI/ABS/10.1177/0149206312461054.
Oldham, G., Fried Y. (2016). Job Design Research and Theory: Past, Present and Future. Journal of Organizational behavior and Human Decision processes. 2016. Originally published online 14 September 2016 DOI/ABS/10.1177/0149206312461054.
Grant, R. (2015). The Resource-Based Theory of Competitive Advantage: Implications for Strategy Formulation. California Management Review.
Priem, R., Butler, J., & Li, S. (2013). Toward reimagining strategy research: Retrospection and prospection on the 2011 AMR decade award article. Academy of Management Review.
Pieters, C. (2014, August 12). The effective management of a culturally diverse workforce in five-star multinational hotels: a case study, the Westin Dublin. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10788/2087.