Socioeconomic Determinants of Child Mortality (Under Age One): Reported by Mothers of Reproductive Age in Punjab, Pakistan
Volume 8, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages: 142-148
Received: Aug. 29, 2019; Accepted: Oct. 31, 2019; Published: Nov. 14, 2019
Views 29      Downloads 15
Daud Rafique, Department of Economics, Forman Christian College, Lahore, Pakistan
Muhammad Ali Bhatti, Department of Economics, Forman Christian College, Lahore, Pakistan
Isaac Shahzad, Bureau of Statistics, Government of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Suleman Shaukat, Department of Economics, Forman Christian College, Lahore, Pakistan
Article Tools
Follow on us
The future of a nation lies in the hands of its children. Health of children should be the first priority of a nation. It is an indicator of social and economic development. Pakistan falls among high child mortality rate countries. The aim of this paper is to assess the socioeconomic determinants of child mortality in the Punjab. For this purpose, the study obtains data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2014), conducted by Punjab Bureau of statistics. The data were collected with the help of well-designed three questionnaires from 38,405 households of Punjab. The STATA is used to apply Logistic model to determine the factors affecting child mortality. The dependent variable is dichotomous in nature based on this question “Have you ever given birth to a boy or girl who was born alive but later died?” and response is either yes or no. According to the empirical results of the study, area of residence, source of drinking water, women ever attended school and their level of education, women media awareness, women smoking and wealth quintiles are important socioeconomic determinants of child mortality. But comparatively, wealth quintiles have greater influence on reducing child mortality. The study suggests some policies to improve the situation, e.g., allocation of more budget for health, initiative of health care programs for women and infant, particularly in rural areas of Punjab.
Infant, Poverty, Household, Logistic Regression, Poverty Status and Poverty Factors
To cite this article
Daud Rafique, Muhammad Ali Bhatti, Isaac Shahzad, Suleman Shaukat, Socioeconomic Determinants of Child Mortality (Under Age One): Reported by Mothers of Reproductive Age in Punjab, Pakistan, Economics. Vol. 8, No. 4, 2019, pp. 142-148. doi: 10.11648/
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Agha, S. (2000). The Determinants of Infant Mortality in Pakistan. Socail Science and Medicine, 51, 199-208.
Al jumaily, H. F., Al-Amin, M. M., & Hantush, M. M. (2013). Infant Mortality rate in Al-Ramadi Province from 2000 through 2010, retrospective study. Health, 5 (2), 292-297.
Chowdhury, Q. H., Islam, R., & Hossain, K. (2010). Socioeconomic Determinants of Neonatal, Postnatal, Infant and Child Mortality. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2 (6), 118-125.
Clark, S., Bruce, J., & Dude, A. (2006). Protecting Young Women from HIV/AIDS: The case against Child and Adolscent Marriage. International Family Planning Perspective, 32 (2), 79-88.
Economic Adviser's Wing, F. D. (2016-2107). Pakistan Economic Survey. Islamabad: Economic Adviser's Wing, Finance Division, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved from
Harttgen, K., & Misselhorn, M. (2006). A Multilevel Approach to Explain Child Mortality and Undernutrition in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Ibero America Institute for Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 152.
Hammer, J., & Spears, D. (2016). Village sanitation and child health: Effects and external validity in arandomized field experiment in rural India. Journal of Health Economics, 48, 135–148.
Hossain, B. (2015). Women Empowerment and Infant Mortality in Bangladesh. Journal of Developing Areas.
Molitoris, J. (2017). Disparities in death: Inequality in Cause-Specific Infant and Child Mortality in Stockholm, 1878-1926. Demographic Research, 455-500.
Mustafa, H. E., & Odimegwu, C. (2008). Socioeconomic Determinants of Infant Mortality in Kenya: Analysis of Kenya DHS 2003. Journal of Humanities and Socail Science, 2 (2).
PMNCH. (2012). Reaching Child Brides. PMNCH Knowledge Summary #22. Retrieved from
Punjab, G. o. (2015). Punjab Health Sector Plan 2018: Building a Healthier Punjab. Lahore: Government of Punjab. Retrieved from
Shapiro, D., & Teniku, M. (2017). Women's Education, Infant and Child Mortality, and Fertility decline in Urban and Rural Sub-Saharan Africa. Demographic Research, 669-708.
UN (2007). The Millennium Development Goals Report. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs DESA.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186