The Role of Repulsive Van der Waals Interactions in the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections with Antiretroviral Drugs
Science Innovation
Volume 4, Issue 3-1, June 2016, Pages: 1-9
Received: Aug. 17, 2015; Accepted: Aug. 18, 2015; Published: Sep. 28, 2015
Views 4109      Downloads 91
Authors
O. I. Ani, Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani, Enugu State, Nigeria
T. O. Chime, Department of Chemical Engineering, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani, Enugu State, Nigeria
S. G. Wadzani, Department of Training, Scientific Equipment Development Institute, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Van der Waals interactions mechanism was used to determine and explain the interaction processes in HIV-drug coated blood interactions. The methodology involved the serial dilution of the five different antiretroviral drugs (two HAART/FDC and three single drugs) and the subsequent incubation with the blood samples collected from ten HIV infected persons for the absorbance measurement using a digital Ultraviolet Visible MetaSpecAE1405031Pro Spectrophotometer. The digital CD4 count machine (Cytoflowmeter) was used to obtain the CD4 counts of the blood samples. The variables required for the computations with the Lifshiftz formula were derived from the absorbance data. The MATLAB software tools were employed in the mathematical analysis of the very large body of data generated from the experiments. The Hamaker constants A11, A22, A33 and the combined Hamaker coefficients A132 of the various drugs interacting with the blood were obtained using the values of the dielectric constant together with the Lifshiftz equation. The absolute combined Hamaker coefficient, A132abs (a mean of all the values of the various Hamaker coefficients) for each antiretroviral drug on both infected blood samples were also calculated. The absolute values for the combined Hamaker coefficient, A132abs obtained for each of the five antiretroviral drugs interacting with infected blood samples are given thus: D1 = -0.03998×10-21 Joule, D2 = -0.05305×10-21 Joule, D3 = -0.05845×10-21 Joule, D4 = -0.02481×10-21 Joule, and D5 = -0.05844×10-21 Joule. The negative senses of the absolute combined Hamaker coefficient imply net negative van der Waals forces indicating a possible repulsion or blocking of the invading virus by the administered drug which coats the lymphocytes. This, however, confirms a functional cure for HIV infection which had been clinically established by the biological researchers. A thermodynamic criterion for HIV-drug interaction prediction was suggested and found to be a valuable tool in HIV study. The use of the findings of this work by pharmaceutical industries is recommended.
Keywords
Hamaker Constant, Hamaker Coefficient, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Antiretroviral Drug, Lifshitz Formula, Lymphocyte, Van der Waals Forces, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)
To cite this article
O. I. Ani, T. O. Chime, S. G. Wadzani, The Role of Repulsive Van der Waals Interactions in the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections with Antiretroviral Drugs, Science Innovation. Special Issue: Innovative Researches in Science and Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 3-1, 2016, pp. 1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.si.s.2016040301.11
References
[1]
UNAIDS (2013). Report on the Global on HIV/AIDS Treatment.
[2]
UNAIDS (2006). Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic/UNAIDS: A UNAIDS 10th Anniversary Special Edition, May 2006, pp.1-2.
[3]
Szekeres Greg (1999). Bulletin of Experimental Treatments for AIDS, San Francisco AIDS Foundation.
[4]
Omenyi, S. N., (2005). The Concept of Negative Hamaker Coefficients: Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Inaugural Lecture Series No.8.1, p.23.
[5]
Achebe, C. H., (2010): Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) - Blood Interactions: Surface Thermodynamics Approach, Ph. D. Dissertation, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
[6]
United States Department of Health and Human Services (2004). "A Guide to Primary Care for People with HIV/AIDS, 2004 Edition".
[7]
Achebe, C. H., Omenyi, S. N., (2013). The effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections on the absorbance characteristics of different blood components. Int. J. Sci. Invent. 2(5), 53-61 www.ijesi.org.
[8]
Hamaker, H. C., (1937): Physica, Vol.4, p.1058.
[9]
Van der Waals, J. D., (1873). Thesis, Leiden.
[10]
Omenyi, S. N., (1978). Attraction and Repulsion of Particles by Solidifying Melts, Ph. D thesis, University of Toronto (1978), pp. 23, 33, 34.
[11]
Visser, J., (1981). Advances in Interface Science, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Vol.15, pp.157-169.
[12]
London, F., (1930), Z. Physics, Vol.63, p.245.
[13]
Dzyaloshinskii I. E, Lifshitz E. M. and Pitaevskii L. P., (1961). The General Theory of Van der Waals Forces. Adv. Phys. Vol.10, (38). 165.
[14]
Ani, O. I., (2015). Surface Energetics Study of the Interactions between HIV and Blood Cells Treated with Antiretroviral Drugs, Ph.D. Dissertation, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
[15]
Langbein, D., (1969). Journal of Adhesion, Vol.1, p.237.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186