Torrefaction of Nigerian Palm Kernel Shell into Solid Fuel
Volume 4, Issue 3-1, June 2016, Pages: 19-23
Received: Oct. 29, 2015;
Accepted: Oct. 30, 2015;
Published: Jan. 27, 2016
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Onyeagba Basil Obinna, Advanced Manufacturing Department, Scientific Equipment Development Institute (SEDI), Enugu, Nigeria
Eze Somtochukwu Kingsley, Advanced Manufacturing Department, Scientific Equipment Development Institute (SEDI), Enugu, Nigeria
Madu Okwuchukwu, Advanced Manufacturing Department, Scientific Equipment Development Institute (SEDI), Enugu, Nigeria
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Palm kernel shell (PKS) which is a waste from oil palm tree was torrefied to improve its properties as a solid fuel. The study on Palm kernel shell torrefaction was performed under various temperature and time of 200ºC, 220ºC, 240ºC, 260ºC, 280ºC, 300ºC and 40, 80, 120 minutes respectively using a horizontal tubular type reactor made of stainless steel. The electric furnace surrounding the reactor was used to regulate its temperature. An elemental (CHNS) analyzer was also used to get the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen & sulphur contents. The calorific value was measured using a bomb calorimeter. The mass yield, energy yield, ash content, moisture content, volatile matter content and fixed carbon content were calculated. The results of the study indicate that increase in torrefaction temperature decreased the mass & energy yield of Palm kernel shell. The carbon content of Palm kernel shell increased while hydrogen and oxygen content decreased after torrefaction which resulted in higher heating value of 5 to 20%. Ash content and fixed carbon content of palm kernel shell were observed to have increased with reduction in the moisture and volatile matter therein. It therefore follows that Palm kernel shell possess valuable potentials to supplement the energy supply of Nigeria through sustainable renewable energy technologies.
Palm Kernel Shell, Torrefaction, Solid Fuel, Pretreatment, Biomass
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Onyeagba Basil Obinna,
Eze Somtochukwu Kingsley,
Torrefaction of Nigerian Palm Kernel Shell into Solid Fuel, Science Innovation. Special Issue: Innovative Researches in Science and Engineering.
Vol. 4, No. 3-1,
2016, pp. 19-23.
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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