Torrefaction of Nigerian Palm Kernel Shell into Solid Fuel
Volume 4, Issue 3-1, June 2016, Pages: 19-23
Received: Oct. 29, 2015;
Accepted: Oct. 30, 2015;
Published: Jan. 27, 2016
Views 3814 Downloads 100
Onyeagba Basil Obinna, Advanced Manufacturing Department, Scientific Equipment Development Institute (SEDI), Enugu, Nigeria
Eze Somtochukwu Kingsley, Advanced Manufacturing Department, Scientific Equipment Development Institute (SEDI), Enugu, Nigeria
Madu Okwuchukwu, Advanced Manufacturing Department, Scientific Equipment Development Institute (SEDI), Enugu, Nigeria
Follow on us
Palm kernel shell (PKS) which is a waste from oil palm tree was torrefied to improve its properties as a solid fuel. The study on Palm kernel shell torrefaction was performed under various temperature and time of 200ºC, 220ºC, 240ºC, 260ºC, 280ºC, 300ºC and 40, 80, 120 minutes respectively using a horizontal tubular type reactor made of stainless steel. The electric furnace surrounding the reactor was used to regulate its temperature. An elemental (CHNS) analyzer was also used to get the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen & sulphur contents. The calorific value was measured using a bomb calorimeter. The mass yield, energy yield, ash content, moisture content, volatile matter content and fixed carbon content were calculated. The results of the study indicate that increase in torrefaction temperature decreased the mass & energy yield of Palm kernel shell. The carbon content of Palm kernel shell increased while hydrogen and oxygen content decreased after torrefaction which resulted in higher heating value of 5 to 20%. Ash content and fixed carbon content of palm kernel shell were observed to have increased with reduction in the moisture and volatile matter therein. It therefore follows that Palm kernel shell possess valuable potentials to supplement the energy supply of Nigeria through sustainable renewable energy technologies.
Palm Kernel Shell, Torrefaction, Solid Fuel, Pretreatment, Biomass
To cite this article
Onyeagba Basil Obinna,
Eze Somtochukwu Kingsley,
Torrefaction of Nigerian Palm Kernel Shell into Solid Fuel, Science Innovation. Special Issue: Innovative Researches in Science and Engineering.
Vol. 4, No. 3-1,
2016, pp. 19-23.
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Anuphon Pimchuai, Animesh Dutta, Prabir Basu (2010), Torrefaction of Agriculture Residue To Enhance Combustible Properties, Journal Article in Energy & Fuels 24(9): pp. 4638-4645 http://dx. doi.org/10.1021/ef901168f Actions.
Amin A. Jaafar and Murni M. Ahmad (2011), torrefaction of malaysian palm kernel shell into value –added solid fuels, international journal of chemical, nuclear, metallurgical and materials Engineering. 5 (12): pp 62-65.
Bergman P. C. A, Boersma A. R., Zwart R. W. R. and J. H. A. Kiel (2005a), torrefaction for biomass co-firing in existing coal-fired power stations, Energy research center of Netherland (ECN).
Bergman P. C. A, Boersma A. R., Zwart R. W. R. and J. H. A. Kiel (2005b), torrefaction for biomass co-firing in existing coal-fired power stations, Energy research center of Netherland (ECN).
Gevers P., Ramaekers G., Frehen A., Sijbinga M., Steen V., Sturms J. and I. Taks (2002), Green Energy from wood or torrefied wood, University of Technology Eindhoven.
Lisardo Núñez Regueira, J. Rodríguez Añón, J. Proupín, and C. Labarta (2001), Recovering Energy from Used Synthetic Automobile Oils through Cogeneration, Energy & Fuels 15(3): pp. 691- 695.
Miskam A., Zainal Z. A. and I. M Yusof (2009), Characterization of Sawdust Residues for Cyclone Gasifier, Journal of Applied Sciences 9 (12): pp. 2294-2300. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2009.2294.2300 Actions.
Muafah Abd Aziz, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Khalik M. Sabil (2011), Characterization of oil palm biomass as feed for torrefaction process Conference Paper National Postgraduate Conference http://dx.doi. org/10.1109/natpc.2011.6136260 Actions.
Peter McKendry (2002), Energy production from biomass (part 1), overview of biomass Journal of Bioresource Technology 83 (1) pp: 37-46 11 citations from patents http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0960-8524(01)00118-3 Actions.
Yang H, Yan R, Chen H, Lee D. H, Liang D. T and C. Zheng (2006), mechanism of palm oil waste pyrolysis in a packed bed, energy and fuels 20 pp: 1321-1328.
Yoshimitsu Uemura, Wissam N. Omar, Toshio Tsutsui and Suzana Yusup (2011), Torrefaction of oil palm wastes, Journal Article in Fuel 90(8): pp. 2585-2591 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.03.021.
Zakir Khan, Suzana Yusup, Murni Melati Ahmad (2011), Thermogravimetric analysis of palm oil wastes decomposition, Conference Paper, IEEE Conference on Clean Energy and Technology (CET) http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/cet.2011.6041464 Actions.