Development of Effective Urinal Odour Traps for Conventional Household Urinals, Urine Diversion Dry Toilets (UDDT) and Community Urine Collection Tanks
Science Research
Volume 4, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 79-87
Received: May 7, 2016; Accepted: May 16, 2016; Published: Jun. 13, 2016
Views 2917      Downloads 75
Authors
Ababu T. Tiruneh, University of Swaziland, Department of Environmental Health Science, Mbabane, Swaziland
William N. Ndlela, University of Swaziland, Department of Environmental Health Science, Mbabane, Swaziland
Jonna Heikkilä, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Technology Environment and Business, Turku, Finland
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Control of odour from urinal installations is an important task from considerations of health, hygiene and acceptability or use of these installations. Because of the problems associated with cost, technology and proprietary nature of many of the marketed technologies for odour control, there is a need to develop simple, easily adaptable and low cost technologies for odour traps in urinal installations. A research work was carried out for the development of simple and low cost odour control using devices that work on the principles of either buoyant force or gravity push combined with elastic band extension. The conceptual development of the odour trapping device arrangement and of the odour trapping mechanism is presented. The scientific model for determining the optimum elastic band extension for effective odour control is developed. Experiments were performed to verify the theoretical model relating force required for opening the odour trap with the optimum elastic band extension length. The experimental results were also used to determine the model parameters through regression. Different types of odour control devices were developed and installed to adapt to differing urinal installations including household level urinals, urine diversion dry toilets (UDDT) and community urine collection storage tanks. The devices, besides being simple and low cost, have more or less been found to work satisfactorily and effectively control odour from the urinal installations that they have been provided to.
Keywords
Odour Control, Ammonia, Urinals, UDDT, Urine Smell, Toilets, Urine Tanks
To cite this article
Ababu T. Tiruneh, William N. Ndlela, Jonna Heikkilä, Development of Effective Urinal Odour Traps for Conventional Household Urinals, Urine Diversion Dry Toilets (UDDT) and Community Urine Collection Tanks, Science Research. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2016, pp. 79-87. doi: 10.11648/j.sr.20160403.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Martin, J. and Heaney J. (2008) Water use by urinals. Conserve Florida Water Clearinghouse. Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences. University of Florida.
[2]
Münch, E and Winker, M. (2009) Technology review of urine diversion components. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ).
[3]
Dahm, P and Munch, E. (2009) Waterless urinals: a proposal to save water and recover urine nutrients in Africa. 34th WEDC International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[4]
Chiarawatchai, N., Florian, K., Werner, C., Bracken, P. (2005) Technical data sheets for ecosan components ecosan sector project GTZ-ecosan team, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH.
[5]
Tilley, E.; Ulrich, L.; Luethi, C.; Reymond, P.; Zurbruegg, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag).
[6]
Demiriz, M. (2005) Application of Dry Urinals. Gelsenkirchen University of Applied Sciences, 45877 Gelsenkirchen / Germany.
[7]
Fischer, D. R. (2007) Waterless Urinals; Research and Myths. CFM, LEED-AP.
[8]
NWP (2006) Smart sanitation solutions: Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. 4th World water forum, Mexico.
[9]
Oldenburg et al. (2009) Urban urine diversion and grey water treatment system. Case study of sustainable sanitation projects, Linz, Austria.
[10]
Winker, M.; Groenwall, P. N. (2010) Waterless urinal sheds in the inner city, Hamburg, Germany. Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA).
[11]
Schuetze, T., Fandino, V. S. (2014) Terra Preta Sanitation: A key component for sustainability in the urban environment. Sustainability, 6, 7725-7750.
[12]
Rieck, C., Münch, E., Hoffmann, H. (2012) Technology Review of Urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs): Overview of design, operation, management and costs. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Bonn, Germany.
[13]
Chariar, V. M., Sakthivel, S. R. (2013) Waterless Urinals: A Resource Book. UNICEF.
[14]
Gensch, R., Miso, A., Itchon, G., Sayre, E. (2010) Low cost sustainable sanitation solutions for Mindanao and the Philippines - A practical construction field guide. Sustainable Sanitation Center, Xavier University, Philippines.
[15]
Chariar, V. (2009) IIT Zerodor - Waterless Urinal Odour Prevention Trap. Centre for Rural Development and Technology Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
548 FASHION AVENUE
NEW YORK, NY 10018
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-688-8931