Effect of Processing on the Chemical and Microbiological Qualities of African Arowana (Heterotis niloticus), a Species of the bonytongue Fish
Science Research
Volume 5, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages: 65-71
Received: Aug. 24, 2016; Accepted: May 20, 2017; Published: Nov. 28, 2017
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Olusegun A. Olaoye, Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria
Iniobong G. Lawrence, Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Nigeria
Yemi T. Ayanbukola, Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Nigeria
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In the present investigation, African arowana (Heterotis niloticus) fish samples were subjected to drying and smoking separately in order to evaluate the effect of low and elevated temperatures on the chemical and microbiological qualities of resulting product. The different temperatures used during drying included 50°C (SampDried50), 60°C (SampDried60), 80°C (SampDried80) and 100°C (SampDried100) and 120°C (SampDried120). Cold smoking (smoking at 45-50oC) and hot smoking (smoking at 75-80oC) were also used in producing smoked Heterotis niloticus. Analysis of the dried and smoked Heterotis niloticus samples indicated that the SampDried120 had the highest protein content of 37.98% while 4.12% was recorded for the SampSmoked75-80 sample as the highest ash content. Free fatty acid (FFA) was lowest (0.31 KOH/g lipid)) in the SampSmoked75-80 sample while 0.31 (mg MDA/kg) was recorded as Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value for SampDried120. The SampDried120 sample recorded the highest potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium contents (mg/100g), having respective values of 76.38, 43.04, 64.37, 21.20 and 134.24. Similar results were recorded for the essential amino acids of the Heterotis niloticus samples, with the SampDried120 sample having highest values. Evaluation of microbiological quality showed that Pseudomonas, coliforms and Staphylococcus were lower in the smoked samples than others. This investigation concluded that hot smoking and drying at elevated temperatures of 80, 100 and 120°C could extend shelf life of Heterotis niloticus as a result of reduction TBA and FFA values; furthermore, there were higher values of protein and ash than in other samples.
Heterotis niloticus, Cold and Hot Smoking, Drying, Thiobarbituric Acid, Free Fatty Acids, Essential Amino Acids
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Olusegun A. Olaoye, Iniobong G. Lawrence, Yemi T. Ayanbukola, Effect of Processing on the Chemical and Microbiological Qualities of African Arowana (Heterotis niloticus), a Species of the bonytongue Fish, Science Research. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2017, pp. 65-71. doi: 10.11648/j.sr.20170505.11
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