Effect of Priming on Seed Quality of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Varieties at Assosa, Western Ethiopia
Science Research
Volume 8, Issue 3, June 2020, Pages: 59-72
Received: Oct. 14, 2019; Accepted: Nov. 26, 2019; Published: Apr. 28, 2020
Views 157      Downloads 64
Meseret Ejeta, Department of Seed Science and Technology, Holetta Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Benishagul state of Ethiopia is a potential place for soybean seed production but, seed quality production is the major problem under this place. So that, the use of seed priming techniques before seed sowing has been the best solution to overcome seed quality problem. Experiment was carried out at Haramaya University seed science laboratory. The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of priming on seed quality of soybean varieties. The experiment had three varieties (Belessa95, Wello and Gishama), three priming types [GA3 (100PPM), KH2PO4 (50 PP) and water] and three priming durations (0, 6, 12 hours) were evaluated using a randomized complete block design for field experiment. Seed were harvested and seed quality analysis was tested at laboratory by using completely Randomized Design in three replications. The result of the study showed that highly significant (P≤0.01) difference between interaction of varieties by, priming type and soaking durations for Seedling dry weight, seedling vigor index-2, speed of germination, Electrical conductivity and field emergence index and significant (P≤0.05) difference for seedling vigor index-1 were observed. Varieties by priming type interaction showed highly significant (P≤0.01) difference for seedling dry weight, seedling vigor index-2, speed of germination, electrical conductivity and field emergence index. The highest shoot length were observed for Belessa95 varieties primed with GA3 (16.31cm) and the highest root length were observed for Belessa95 varieties (6.98cm) and seed primed with water (7.22cm). The highest seedling dry weight was recorded when Belessa95 variety primed with water for 12hr (250 gm). The highest seedling vigor index1 was recorded when Gishema variety primed with KH2PO4 for 6hr (2202.20), the highest seedling vigor index2 was recorded when Belessa95 variety primed with water for 12hr (23673) and the highest Speed of Germination was recorded when Wello variety primed with water for 6hr (42.89). Colletotrichum dematium, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium spp, Alternaria spp, Tricodormal spp, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium spp, Cladosporium spp, Curvularia lunata, Rhizoctonia bataticola, Rhizopus spp, Macrophomina spp, yeast, Chaetomium spp, Sphacelomia glycines and Xanthomonas campestri were disease identified from seed sample. Soybean varieties primed with water and GA3 priming medias exhibited the better results in improving seed quality followed by KH2PO4. Hence, Water priming was recommended to user to overcome the problems of poor crop emergence and establishments under adverse environmental condition.
Chemo-priming, Germination, Seed Health, Seed Vigor, Soybean
To cite this article
Meseret Ejeta, Effect of Priming on Seed Quality of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Varieties at Assosa, Western Ethiopia, Science Research. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2020, pp. 59-72. doi: 10.11648/j.sr.20200803.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Lackey, J. A. 1977. A synopsis of Phaseoleae (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae): Ph. D. dissertation. Iowa State University. America, Iowa.
Hymowitz, T. 1970. The domestication of the soybean. Economy Botany. 24: 408-421.
Belay, A., 1987. Research programs of IAR (Institute of Agricultural research). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
IAR (Institute of Agricultural Research). 1982. Soybean production guideline. A. A., Ethiopia.
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture). 2016. World agriculture supply and demand estimates, WASDE-549.
Laswai, H. S., Mpanalile, J. J., Silayo, V. C. K. and Ballegu, W. R., 2005, November. Use of soybeans in food formulation in Tanzania. In Proceedings of the First National Soybean Stakeholders Workshop (pp. 10-11).
Aoyagi, A. and Shurtleff, W., 2007. A Special Report on The History of Soybeans and Soy foods in Africa and Around the World. A Chapter from the Unpublished Manuscript, History of Soybeans and Soy foods, 1100.
Chung, G. and Singh, R. J., 2008. Broadening the genetic base of soybean: a multidisciplinary approach. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 27 (5), pp. 295-341.
Anon. 1984. U.S. Soybean production and utilization. Soybean Research. Advance. Institute. DC. P. 69.
Carter, T. E. and Wilson, R. F., 1998, September. Soybean quality for human consumption. Soybeans role in Australia. In Proceedings of the 10th Australian Soybean Conference’.(Ed. AT James) pp (pp. 1-16).
LaRue, T. A. and Patterson, T. G., 1981. How much nitrogen do legumes fix?. In Advances in agronomy (Vol. 34, pp. 15-38). Academic Press.
LIU, K., 2000. Expanding soybean food utilization. Food Technol., 54, pp. 46-58.
Liu, K., 2012. Soybeans: chemistry, technology, and utilization. Springer.
Hymowitz, T., Collins, F. I., Panczner, J. and Walker, W. M., 1972. Relationship between the content of oil, protein, and sugar in soybean seed 1. Agronomy Journal, 64 (5), pp. 613-616.
Wilcox, J. R. and Shibles, R. M., 2001. Interrelationships among seed quality attributes in soybean. Crop Science, 41 (1), pp. 11-14.
Assefa, M. K., Hunje, R. and Koti, R. V. 2008. Enhancement of seed quality in soybean following priming treatment. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science. 23: 787-89.
Rahman, M. M., Hossain, M. M., Anwar, M. P. and Juraimi, A. S., 2011. Plant density influence on yield and nutritional quality of soybean seed. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 10 (2), p. 125.
CSA (Central Statistical Agency). 2015. Agricultural Sample Survey 2012/2013: Report on area and production of crops (private peasant holdings, Meher season). Vol. III. Statistical bulletin. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Masuda, T. and Goldsmith, P. D., 2009. World soybean production: area harvested, yield, and long-term projections. International food and agribusiness management review, 12 (1030-2016-82753), pp. 1-20.
AARC (Assosa Agricultural Research Center Farming system survey) 2007. Assosa, Ethioipa.
ISTA (International Seed Testing Association). 1996. International Rules for Seed Testing. Seed Science and Technology, 1B288, Zurich, Switzerland.
ISTA (International Seed Testing Association). 2003. International Rules for Seed Testing. 8303 Basserersdorf, CH- Switzerland.
ISTA (International Seed Testing Association). 2008. International rules for seed testing.
Czabator, F. J., 1962. Germination value: an index combining speed and completeness of pine seed germination. Forest science, 8 (4), pp. 386-396.
Abdul-Baki, A. A. and Anderson, J. D., 1973. Vigor determination in soybean seed by multiple criteria. Crop science, 13 (6), pp. 630-633.
ISTA (International Seed Testing Association). 1993. Hand book for seedling evaluation. International Seed Testing Association, Zurich, Switzerland.
Maguire, J. D., 1962. Speed of Germination—Aid In Selection And Evaluation for Seedling Emergence And Vigor 1. Crop science, 2 (2), pp. 176-177.
Qi-He, Y. A. N. G., Qi-He, Y. A. N. G., Wan-Hui, Y. E., Xiong, D. E. N. G., Hong-Ling, C. A. O., ZHANG, Y. and Kai-Yang, X. U., 2005. Seed germination eco-physiology of Mikania micrantha HBK. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 46.
Gomez, K. H. and Gomez, A. A. 1984. Statistical procedures for agricultural research. Second edition. Rice Research Institute. Pp 304-308.
Sori, A., 2014. Effect of hydro and Osmo priming on quality of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Seeds. International Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science, 1 (2), pp. 028-037.
Basra, S. M. A., Farooq, M., Afzal, I. and Hussain, M., 2006. Influence of osmopriming on the germination and early seedling growth of coarse and fine rice. Int. J. Agric. Biol, 8 (1), pp. 19-22.
Harris, D., Joshi, A., Khan, P. A., Gothkar, P. and Sodhi, P. S., 1999. On-farm seed priming in semi-arid agriculture: development and evaluation in maize, rice and chickpea in India using participatory methods. Experimental Agriculture, 35 (1), pp. 15-29.
Khairul Mazed, H. E. M. Najmul Haque Md., Israt Jahan Irin, Md. Ashraful Islam Pulok and Abu Habib, Md.. 2015. Effect of seed priming on growth, yield and seed quality. International Journal of multidisciplinary Research and Development. 2: 142-147.
Zhang, F., Pan, B. and Smith, D. L., 1997. Application of gibberellic acid to the surface of soybean seed (t Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and symbiotic nodulation, plant development, final grain and protein yield under short season conditions. Plant and soil, 188 (2), pp. 329-335.
Graf, E., Empson, K. L. and Eaton, J. W., 1987. Phytic acid. A natural antioxidant. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 262 (24), pp. 11647-11650.
Umair, A., Ali, S., Sarwar, M., Bashir, K., Tareen, M. J. and Malik, M. A., 2013. Assessment of some priming techniques in mungbean (Vigna radiata): a green house study. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 26 (4).
Kiros, M. A. and Hunje, R., 2010. Seed priming for enhancing stand establishment, seed yield and quality of soybean. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci, 23, pp. 701-707.
Afzal, I., Basra, S. M., Ahmad, N. A. Z. I. R., Cheema, M. A., Warraich, E. A. and Khaliq, A., 2002. Effect of priming and growth regulator treatments on emergence and seedling growth of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.). Int. J. Agric. Biol, 4, pp. 303-306.
Umair, A., Ali, S., Bashir, K. and Hussain, S., 2010. Evaluation of different seed priming techniques in mung bean (Vigna radiata). Soil and Environment, 29 (2), pp. 181-186.
Mohammadi, G. R., 2009. The effect of seed priming on plant traits of late-spring seeded soybean (Glycine max L.). American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 5 (3), pp. 322-326.
El-Saidy, A. E., Farouk, S. and El-Ghany, H. A., 2011. Evaluating of different seed priming on seedling growth, yield and quality componenets in two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 6 (9), pp. 977-991.
Miraj, G., Shah, H. U. and Arif, M., 2013. Priming maize (Zea mays) seed with phosphate solutions improves seedling growth and yield. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 23, pp. 893-899.
Bolland, M. D. A. and Baker, M. J., 1988. High phosphorus concentrations in seed of wheat and annual medic are related to higher rates of dry matter production of seedlings and plants. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 28 (6), pp. 765-770.
Zhang, M., Nyborg, M. and McGill, W. B., 1990. Phosphorus concentration in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed: influence on seedling growth and dry matter production. Plant and Soil, 122 (1), pp. 79-83.
THOMSON, C. and BOLGER, T., 2012, December. Effects of seed phosphorus concentration on the emergence and growth of. In Plant Nutrition—from Genetic Engineering to Field Practice: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Plant Nutrition Colloquium, 21–26 September 1993, Perth, Western Australia (Vol. 54, p. 353). Springer Science & Business Media.
Ros, C., Bell, R. W. and White, P. F., 1997. Effect of seed phosphorus and soil phosphorus applications on early growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. IR66. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 43 (3), pp. 499-509.
Kathiresan, K., Kalyani, V. and Gnanarethinam, J. L., 1984. Effect of seed treatments on field emergence, early growth and some physiological processes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Field Crops Research, 9, pp. 215-217.
Srivastava, M. K. and Dwivedi, U. N., 1998. Salicylic acid modulates glutathione metabolism in pea seedlings. Journal of Plant physiology, 153 (3-4), pp. 409-414.
Mewael, K. A., Ravihunje 2008 Seed priming for enhancing stand establishment, seed yield and quality of soybean (Glycine max L.) in College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, India. Karnataka Journal of Agriculture Science, 23 (5), pp. 701-707.
Dornbos, D. L. 2002. Seed vigor. In seed quality: Basic Mechanisms and agricultural implications, Basra, A. s.,(ED.). CBS Publishers, New Delhi, India. Pp. 45-80.
Sung, F., 1993. Biochemical activities associated with priming of sweet corn seeds to improve vigor. Seed Sci Technol, 21, pp. 97-105.
Foti, S., Cosentino, S. L., Patane, C. and D'AGOSTA, G. M., 2002. Effect of osmoconditioning upon seed germination of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) under low temperatures. Seed Science and Technology, 30 (3), pp. 521-533.
Sivritepe, N., Sivritepe, H. O. and Eris, A., 2003. The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in melon seedlings grown under saline conditions. Scientia horticulturae, 97 (3-4), pp. 229-237.
Karta, K. K., 2009. Seed vigor studies in vetches (ViciadasycarpaTen. and V. sativa L) from highlands of Ethiopia. AnM. Sc (Doctoral dissertation, Thesis presented to School of Graduate StudiesHaramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia. 51p).
Copeland. L. O. and M. B. McDonald, 1995. Principles of Seed Science and Technology. 3rd edition. Chapman and Hall Press, New York, USA. 300p.
Kurdikeri MB 1991. Studies on seed quality in hybrid maize (Zea mays L.). Ph. D. Thesis presented to University Agricultural Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
Steiner, J. J., 1990. Seed physiology, production and technology. Crop Science, 30: 1264-1271.
GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI, K., Dalil, B., Muhammadi-Nasab, A. D. and Zehtab-Salmasi, S., 2008. The response of chickpea cultivars to field water deficit. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 36 (1), pp. 25-28.
Taylor, A. G., Allen, P. S., Bennett, M. A., Bradford, K. J., Burris, J. S. and Misra, M. K., 1998. Seed enhancements. Seed science research, 8 (2), pp. 245-256.
Karta K. Kalsa, Tomer R. P. S. & Bekele Abebie 2011. Effects of storage duration and hydro-priming on seed germination and vigour of Common vetch. Journal of Science and Development 1 (1), 65-73.
Ratajczak, K. and K. W. Duczmal, K. W. 1991. Seed vigor estimation by the conductometeric test, katedral Nasiennictwal I Szkolkarstwa Orgodniczego, AR, Poznan, Poland Biuletyn-Instytutu- Hodowali- Aklimatyzacji-Rozlin, 180: 381-390.
Qasim, G., Malik, A. U., Sarfraz, M., Alias, M. A., Bukhsh, H. A. and Ishaque, M., 2010. Relationship between laboratory seed quality tests, field emergence and yield of chickpea. Crop Environ, 1, pp. 31-34.
Wang, Y. R., Yu, L. and Nan, Z. B., 1996. Use of seed vigour tests to predict field emergence of lucerne (Medicago sativa). New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 39 (2), pp. 255-262.
Shovan, L. R., Bhuiyan, M. K. A., Sultana, N., Begum, J. A. and Pervez, Z., 2008. Prevalence of fungi associated with soybean seeds and pathogenicity tests of the major seed-borne pathogens. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production, 3 (4), pp. 24-33.
Mengistu, A. and Sinclair, J. B., 1979. Seed born microorganisms of Ethiopian-grown soybean and chickpea seeds. Plant Disease Reporter, 63 (7), pp. 616-619.
Gorfu, D. and Sangchote, S., 2005. Fungi associated with field pea seeds from Ethiopia and seed transmission of Ascochyta pinodes. Seed Science and Technology, 33 (2), pp. 387-396.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186