India’s Self, Cross & Often Cross Pollinated Crops İn The Global Crop Production: Mendelian variation Perspectives
Science Discovery
Volume 1, Issue 3, June 2013, Pages: 16-27
Received: Jun. 8, 2013; Published: Jun. 30, 2013
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Authors
M. B. Dastagiri, Principal Scientist, National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, DPS Marg, Pusa, New Delhi, India
T. K Immanuelraj, Scientist, National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, DPS Marg, Pusa, New Delhi, India
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Abstract
Global agricultural growth has been slowing down. Crop production constitutes lion share of agricultural output. Empirical studies show that over the 40 years, crops growth rates in terms of yield gains and total production has been impressive but not substantial. This is mirroring in general in most of the developing countries and in India in particular. Crop plants originated from wild species through Mendelian variation, inter-specific hybridization or polyploidy. Genetic diversity plays an important role in crop improvement because hybridization between lines of diverse origin generally displays a greater heterosis than between, closely related strains. Infect, genetic diversity is more in cross-pollinated crops compared to self-pollinated crops. Until now, researchers and public are dealing with the agricultural production performance under cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fibber crops and so on but there is no (limited) study analyzed based on Mendelian variation. So this study uses new way of analyzes based on Mendelian variation perspective to study the production performance and growth trends of crops under self, cross and often cross-pollinated crops. The present paper is an attempt to examine critically the compound growth rates of area, production and productivity during distinct epochs in the agricultural development of India. Further, focus on the performance status of India’s major crops vis-à-vis the top three crop productivity nations of the world with special reference to self, cross and often cross-pollinated crops for the period of 1950-51 to 2011-12. Essentially, such a comparison will provide insights regarding the magnitude of the yield-gap that countries having low productivity need to bridge. A comparison of India with other nations reveals that India is second in the rice, wheat and groundnut production. The production differences between India and those nations are substantial in cross and often cross-pollinated crops compare to self-pollinated crops. However, the productivity differences between India and high productivity countries are more in cross-pollinated crops followed by self and often cross-pollinated crops. India needs to explore comparative yield advantages in cross-pollinated crops. Rice and wheat are the two principal crops grown in India. Though cross pollinated and often cross pollinated crops such as maize, sugarcane, cotton and tobacco hold promise for the future, the incessant area expansion under rice and wheat have relegated these crops to the background. In India, compound growth rates reflect that the pivot of green revolution as wheat. This is reflected by the crop growth rate of 5.65% during green revolution period. All through wheat productivity increased at increasing rates of 1.27%, 2.67% and 2.97% indicates technological breakthroughs in wheat production. Similarly, cotton productivity also increased at increasing rates of 2.04%, 2.54%, and 3.75%. To conclude, among self-pollinated crops; India stands second in paddy, wheat, groundnut and first in jute production. But in terms of productivity India trails behind higher productive countries. This calls for steps to enhance productivity. Further, scientists should give more emphasis on cross-pollinated crops. Bureaus of plant genetic resources must preserve and take steps to enhance genetic diversity of these crops. Planners and policy makers must have vigilance in land allocation and price fixation based on Mendelian variation of crops.
Keywords
India, Globe, Self, Cross and Often Cross Pollinated Crops, Production Performance, Mendelian variation Approach
To cite this article
M. B. Dastagiri, T. K Immanuelraj, India’s Self, Cross & Often Cross Pollinated Crops İn The Global Crop Production: Mendelian variation Perspectives, Science Discovery. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2013, pp. 16-27. doi: 10.11648/j.sd.20130103.11
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