Evaluation of Heavy Metal Concentration in Maize Grown in Selected Industrial Areas of Ogun State and its Effects on Urban Food Security
International Journal of Science, Technology and Society
Volume 1, Issue 2, September 2013, Pages: 48-56
Received: Aug. 11, 2013;
Published: Sep. 20, 2013
Views 3360 Downloads 344
Malomo Olu, College of Food Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, P.M.B. 1015, OTA, Ogun State, Nigeria
Olufade, O. I., College of Food Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, P.M.B. 1015, OTA, Ogun State, Nigeria
Adekoyeni, O. O., College of Food Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, P.M.B. 1015, OTA, Ogun State, Nigeria
Jimoh, M. O., College of Food Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, P.M.B. 1015, OTA, Ogun State, Nigeria
Follow on us
This project was carried out to investigate the effect industrial pollution as it affects the heavy metal concentrations flared into the atmosphere, washed down by rain and absorb by maize cultivated in industrial areas of Ogun State. This was suspected to have effects on food safety .In addition to determine the effect of soil factor and the accumulation of metals in maize. This study also ascertained the basis for environmental protection and reduction of the negative implication of heavy metals in the human and livestock health. Maize and soil samples were collected from industrial areas in Ogun State and were analyzed for both chemical and metal concentrations. The metals Fe, Cu, Mg, Ni, Pb, Ca, and Co were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results of the chemical analysis of the maize collected from the industrial areas of Ogun State ranged between 6.35-9.45%, 8.31-12.68%, 1.49-8.294% 1.746-2.792%, and 71.32-78.896% for moisture, crude protein, ether extract, and carbohydrate respectively while the chemical analysis of the soil ranged between 0.65-1.90%, 6.63-7.89%, and 4.01-8.6% for moisture, pH, and nitrogen content respectively. The concentrations of the metals Fe, Cu, Mg, Ni, Pb, Ca, and Co in maize ranged between 28.5-59.5mg/kg, 2-10.7mg/kg, 248.3-321mg/kg, 1.8-4.775mg/kg, 62.5-150mg/kg, and 1.2-10.2mg/kg respectively while the concentrations of the soil samples were 28.9-59.6mg/kg, 4-12.2mg/kg, 297.3-350.5mg/kg, 4.55-9.28mg/kg, 83.3-177.5mg/kg, 7.6-21.8mg/kg, and 0.075-0.46mg/kg for Fe, Cu, Mg, Ni, Pb, Ca, and Co respectively. Some of the metals such as Ni in Ewekoro, Pb in Sango, exceeded the recommended limits proposed by WHO/FAO. The results showed that the high concentrations of certain heavy metals in maize revealed the level of food insecurity and this calls for public concern.
Heavy Metals, Food Security, Indusrial Pollution, Metal Toxicity, Accumulation of Metals in Maize
To cite this article
Olufade, O. I.,
Adekoyeni, O. O.,
Jimoh, M. O.,
Evaluation of Heavy Metal Concentration in Maize Grown in Selected Industrial Areas of Ogun State and its Effects on Urban Food Security, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society.
Vol. 1, No. 2,
2013, pp. 48-56.
A.O.A.C, (1990). Official methods of Analysis. Association of Analytical chemists. Washinton D.C. 1: 73 -74
A.O.A.C. (2000). Official method of analysis 17th edition, Horowitz edition intern, Maryland, USA. Vol. 1& "; 452-456.
Akaninwor, J. O., Onyeike, E. N., Ifemeje, J. C (2006). Trace metal levels in raw and heat processed Nigerian stable food from oil producing areas of rivers and Bayelsa States. J. Applied Sci. Environmental Management. 10(2); 23-27.
Alloway, B. J. and Ayres, D. C. (1995). Heavy metals in soil, blackie academics and professional 284-305.
Benson, T. (2004). Africa’s Food and Nutrition Security Situation: Where Are We and How Did We Get Here? International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C.
Brady, N.C and Weil, R.R. (2002). Elements of the nature and properties of soil. Prentice hall. There is no lab manual. Lab instructions will be posted in the course website. Text teaching assistant: jen loudon; jloudon@AESOP.rutgers.edu 11:375:360
Byerlee., D; and Heisey. 1997. "Evolution of the African maize economy. "In D. Byerlee and C.K. Eicher (eds), Africa’s emerging maize revolution. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers
Dowswell, CR, Paliwal, RL, Cantrell, RP., (1996): Maize in the Third World, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. .
FAO (2002). Food Energy – Methods of analysis and convertion factors. Report of a technical workshop. Rome, 3-6 December, 2002.
FAO (2003), Trade Reforms and Food Security: Conceptualizing the linkages, Rome: FAO.
FAO. (1996). Urban Agriculture: An Oxymoron? In. The State of Food and Agriculture 1996
FFSSA (Forum for Food Security in Southern Africa) (2004). Achieving Food Security in Southern Africa: Policy Issues and Options. FFSSA Synthesis Paper. Online. http://odi.org.uk/work/projects/03-food-security forum/docs/ffssa_synthesis_consultation.pdf ( Accessed on January 10, 2011). from Hungary, Poland and Bulgaria. World Bank, Washington D.C.
Ibrahim, S.A and Hala, K (2007). Growth, yield and chemical constituents of corn (Zea mays L.) as affected by intervals. J. of Applied Sci. Res.,3(10): 1112-1120.
Jayne, T., M. Rukuni, M. Hajek, G. Sithole. and G. Mudimu, (2007). "Structural adjustment and food security in Zimbabwe," in J. Wyckoff and M. Rukuni (Eds.). Toward an Integrated National Food Policy Strategy, Proceedings of tile Second National Consultative Workshop (Harare: University of Zimbabwe). pp. 8-50.
Kabata-Pendias and Pendias, H., (2001). Trace Metals in Soils and Plants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2nd edition.
Lovei, M. and B.S. Levy (2000). Lead exposure and healh in Central Eastern Europe. Evidence
Malomo. O., Ogunmoyela, O.A.B., Oluwajoba, S.O., Adekoyeni, O.O. (2012). Evaluation of chemical and heavy metal concentration in maize (Zea mays) from industrial areas of Ogun State. Journal of sustainable development and environmental protection.: 2(3):35-42
Najat, K. M. (2008). Nuclear techniques applied to biological samples from Tanzania to monitor the nutritional status of children. A PhD thesis. Faculty of Engineering and Physical sciences, University of Survey
Nelson, T. (1996). Closing the Nutrient Loop. World Watch (November/December)
Nkansan, M. A. And Amoako, C.O (2010). Heavy metal content of some common spicies available in markets in the in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 192):158-163.
Olayemi, J.K. (1982): Improved Marketing as a Strategy for Generating Increased Food Production, A Nigeria Experience. West African Journal of Agricultural Economics, 1(1): 21-26.
Ozkutlu F, Doguru, Y,Ozenc, N,Yazici, G, Tunan. Mand Akcay, F (2011). The importance of Turkish hazelnut trace and heavy metal contents for human nutrition. J. Soil and Environmental Management Vol2(10 pp.253)
Punita Guria. (2006). Physico-chemical properties, nutritional quality and value addition to quality protein maize (Zea mays L.). A Thesis for Master of Home Science Submitted to the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad.
Solomons, N.W. and M. Ruz(1997). Nutrition research: 17, 177-183.
WHO/FAO (1984). "The Role of food safety in health and development"- A Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Safety.
Williams, S.B (2007).Urban Aquaculture: Producer Perceptions and Practices in Lagos State, Nigeria. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 2(1):21-27.
Zoubi, M. M. Al, Arslan, A. Abdelgawad, G. Pejon, N. Tabbaa, M. & Jouzdan, O. (2008). The Effect of Sewage Sludge on Productivity of a Crop Rotation of Wheat, Maize and Vetch) and Heavy Metals Accumulation in Soil and Plant in Aleppo Governorate. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. 3 (4), 618-625