Water Hardness Removal by Coconut Shell Activated Carbon
International Journal of Science, Technology and Society
Volume 2, Issue 5, September 2014, Pages: 97-102
Received: Aug. 8, 2014; Accepted: Aug. 23, 2014; Published: Aug. 30, 2014
Views 3301      Downloads 357
Cecilia Rolence, Department of Water and Environmental Science and Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST), Arusha, Tanzania
Revocatus Lazaro Machunda, Department of Water and Environmental Science and Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST), Arusha, Tanzania
Karoli Nicholas Njau, Department of Water and Environmental Science and Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST), Arusha, Tanzania
Article Tools
Follow on us
The present study reports the water softening by adsorption of hardness ions onto Coconut Shell Activated Carbons (CSAC). Characterization of CSAC was identified by FT-IR and SEM techniques. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the effect of various adsorbent factors such as adsorbent dose, initial pH, contact time, and temperature, on the adsorption process using synthetic and field collected water samples. Removal efficiency at nearly neutral pH of 6.3 for both synthetic and field collected water samples were 60% and 55% respectively. Temperature study (303 K-333 K) shows that the softening process in synthetic and field hard water is endothermic as removal efficiency was increasing from 40% and 29% at 303 K to 47% and 38% at 333 K respectively. Removal efficiency increases with the increase in contact time and adsorbent dose until 15 hours and 0.24g/cm3 respectively, for both field and synthetic hard water, which was considered to be maximum. Equilibrium isotherms have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models fit to explain the adsorption behavior of hardness ions onto CSAC.
Activated Carbon, Water Hardness, Coconut Shell, Adsorption, Removal Efficiency
To cite this article
Cecilia Rolence, Revocatus Lazaro Machunda, Karoli Nicholas Njau, Water Hardness Removal by Coconut Shell Activated Carbon, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2014, pp. 97-102. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsts.20140205.11
Meena, K. S., Gunsaria, R. K., Meena, K., Kumar, N. and Meena, P. L., 2011. The Problem of Hardness in Ground Water of Deoli Tehsil (Tonk District) Rajasthan. Journal of Current Chemical & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(1): 50-54
Knivsland, S. M., 2012. Water Chemistry in the Bahi-Manyoni Basin in Tanzania. Reprosentralen, University of Oslo
Napacho, Z. A., & Manyele, S. V., 2010. Quality Assessment of Drinking Water in Temeke District (part II): Characterization of Chemical Parameters. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4(11): 775-789.
Agostinho, L. C. L., Nascimento, L. and Cavalcanti, B. F., 2012. Water Hardness Removal for Industrial Use. Application of the Electrolysis Process. 1:460. doi:10.4172/scientificreports.460
Seo, S. J., Jeon, H., Lee, L. K., Kim, G. Y., Park, D., Nojima, H., Lee, J. and Hyeon, S., 2010. Investigation on Removal of Hardness Ions by Capacitive Deionization (CDI) for Water Softening Applications. Water research, 44: 2267–2275
Johnson, R and Scherer, T., 2012. Drinking Water Quality. Testing and Interpreting Your Results: NDSU Extension Service
WHO, 2011. Hardness in Drinking-water Background Document for Development of WHO: Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. WHO Press
Manahan, S. E. (2000). Environmental Chemistry. (7th ed) Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC
Malakootian, M., Mansoorian, H. J., & Moosazadeh, M., 2010. Performance Evaluation of Electrocoagulation Process using Iron-rod Electrodes for Removing Hardness from Drinking Water. Desalination, 255(1): 67-71
Dow Water & Process Solutions, 2013. FILMTEC™ Reverse Osmosis Membranes Technical Manual
Frankel, V. S. (2011) Seawater Desalination: Trends and Technologies. USA: Kennedy/Jenks Consultants
Grassi, M., Kaykioglu, G., Belgiorno, V., & Lofrano, G. (2012). Removal of emerging contaminants from water and wastewater by adsorption process. In Emerging Compounds Removal from Wastewater (pp. 15-37). Springer Netherlands
Window on State Government (1996), Specification for Floor Finish Remover-concentrate, Texas Specification No. 485-54-09A. Retrieved from http://www.window.state.tx.us/procurement/pub/specifications-library/485/54-09a/
Hanumantharao, Y., Kishore, M., & Ravindhranath, K. (2011). Preparation and development of adsorbent carbon from Acacia farnesiana for defluoridation. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences, 1(3), 209-223.
Gulipalli, C. S., Prasad, B., Wasewar, K. L., (2011) Batch Study, Equilibirum and Kinetics of Adsorption of Selenium Using Rice Husk Ash (RHA). Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 6 (5), 586 – 605
Desta, M. B., (2013) Batch Sorption Experiments: Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm Studies for the Adsorption of Textile Metal Ions onto Teff Straw (Eragrostis tef) Agricultural Waste. Journal of Thermodynamics Volume 2013, Article ID 375830, 6 pages
Cash, D., (2008) EDTA Titrations 2: Analysis of Calcium in a Supplement Tablet; Analysis of Magnesium in Epsom Salt; Hardness of Water. Mohawk College of Applied Arts and Technology.
Srivastava, V. C., Mall, I. D., & Mishra, I. M. (2008). Adsorption of toxic metal ions onto activated carbon: Study of sorption behaviour through characterization and kinetics. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 47(8), 1269-1280
Sherene, T. (2010). Mobility and transport of heavy metals in polluted soil environment. Biological Forum — An International Journal, 2(2): 112-121
Wong MH, Pang J, Chan GSY, Zhang J, Liang J (2003). Physiological aspects of vetiver grass for rehabilitation in abandoned metalliferous mine wastes. Chemosphere 5:1559-1570
Hydrology Project, (1999). Understanding hydrogen ion concentration (pH). New Delhi: World Bank & Government of The Netherlands funded
Jimoh, T. O., Buoro, A. T., & Muriana, M. (2012). Utilization of Blighia sapida (Akee apple) pod in the removal of lead, cadmium and cobalt ions from aqueous solution. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Vol, 4(10), 178-187.
Rolence, C., Machunda, R. L. and Njau, K. N. (2014). Potentials of Agric Wastes Activated Carbon for Water Softening. Research Journal in Engineering and Applied Science 3(3) 199-207
Chakrabarty, S., & Sarma, H. P. (2012). Defluoridation of contaminated drinking water using neem charcoal adsorbent: kinetics and equilibrium studies. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 4(2).
Sepehr, M. N., Zarrabi, M., Kazemian, H., Amrane, A. Yaghmaian, K. and Ghaffari, H. R., 2013. Removal of Hardness Agents, Calcium and Magnesium, by Natural and Alkaline Modified pumice Stones in Single and Binary Systems. Applied Surface Science, 274: 295-305
Hameed, B. H., Mahmoud, D. K., & Ahmad, A. L. (2008). Equilibrium modeling and kinetic studies on the adsorption of basic dye by a low-cost adsorbent: Coconut (Cocos nucifera) bunch waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 158(1), 65-72.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186