Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater in Ibillo, Akoko-Edo Local Government Area, Edo State Nigeria
International Journal of Science, Technology and Society
Volume 2, Issue 5, September 2014, Pages: 103-108
Received: Aug. 13, 2014;
Accepted: Aug. 26, 2014;
Published: Sep. 20, 2014
Views 2791 Downloads 121
Olaniran Emmanuel, Aluko, African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education-English, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
Williams Ogbevire, Emofurieta, Department of Geology, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
Follow on us
Ibillo town, located in Edo State, Southsouth Nigeria, is an important agricultural and commercial center. In recent years, rapid development has created an increase in demand for groundwater and frequently facing water scarcity as well as quality problems. Hydrogeochemical evaluations of ionic abundance in groundwater systems in Ibillo was conducted by collecting a total of 50 groundwater samples for Dry and Rainy seasons, and were subjected to analysis for chemical and microbial characteristics. The study reveal that pH in the area is slightly acidic to alkaline ranging from 5.9 to 8.1. The electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS) values was noted higher during the rainy season. The abundance of major ions in the groundwater is in the order of K>Na>Ca>Mg =Cl>HCO3>SO4>NO3. Total hardness, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cl, HCO3, SO4, NO3, Fl, NO2 and PO4 do not exceed the WHO permissible limit during both seasons. Ca and Mg in majority of the groundwater samples are within the permissible limit with few exceptions irrespective of seasons. K, Pb and Ni exceed the permissible limit during both seasons while Cr, Zn and Ba concentrations partially conform to the WHO limits irrespective of seasons. Most of the groundwater samples examined have high E. coli and total bacterial counts. A comparison of the results with relevant standards show that the water require various form of treatment to bring the microbial contents to standards required for domestic and industrial uses respectively. The type of water that predominates in the study area is Na-K-Cl type and mixed type. Besides, suitability of water for irrigation is evaluated based on sodium adsorption ratio, sodium percent and salinity hazard. It is observed that majority of samples irrespective of seasons fall in “excellent-good” zone indicating water is fit for irrigation purposes. The groundwater in this study area can be said to be partially good for industrial sectors but it require a little treatment for it to be completely suitable for industry.
Groundwater Quality, Ionic Ratio, Ibillo, Hydrogeochemical Evaluation
To cite this article
Olaniran Emmanuel, Aluko,
Williams Ogbevire, Emofurieta,
Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater in Ibillo, Akoko-Edo Local Government Area, Edo State Nigeria, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2014, pp. 103-108.
Adekunle I. M; Adetunji M. T; Gbadebo A. M. and Banjoko O. B. (2007). Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 4(4)308
Ademoroti, C.M.A. (1996). Environmental Chemistry and toxicology. Foludex Press Limited, Ibadan. First Edition, Pp. 171 – 183
Ahmad, Z. A., Mohd, H. A. and Kyoung-Woong K. (2007).Hydrogeochemistry of Groundwater in Manukan Island, Saban Malaysia. The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, Vol 11, No 2: 407 - 413
Ako, B.D; Adepelumi, A. and Ajayi, I. T. (2001): Groundwater contamination in basement-complex area of Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria: A case study using the electrical-resistivity of geographical method. Hydrogeology Journal. 9(6), 611 -622.
Akujieze C.N and Oteze G.E (2006). Groundwater Quality of Benin City Urban aquifer of the Pleistocene – Oligocene Benin Formation, Nigeria. Afr. Sci. 7(2):69-85.
American Public Health Association (2005). Standard methods for the Examination of water and wastewater, 19th edition, Washington D.C
Efe, S.I; Ogban, F.E; Horsfall, M Jr.; and Akporhnor, E.E (2005). Seasonal variations of physico-chemical characteristics in water resources quality in Western Niger Delta region, Nigeria, J. Applies Sci. Environ. Mgt. 9(1),191-195
NGSA (2006). Geological Map of Nigeria, Nigeria Geological Survey Agency, Abuja..
Nwankwoala, H.O and Udom, G.J (2011a). Hydrochemical Facies and Ionic Ratios of Groundwater in Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, Vol.1(3): 87 – 101.
Olobaniyi S.B and Efe S.I (2007). Comparative assessment of rainwater and groundwater quality in an oil producing area of Nigeria: Environmental and health implications. J. Environ. Health Res. 6(2):111-118.
Olobaniyi, S.O.B and Owoyemi, F.B (2002). Quality of Groundwater in the Deltaic Plain sands aquifer of Warri and Environs, Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Hydrogeologists (NAH), Vol 15,
Olutiola, P. O; Famurewa, O. and Sonntag, H. G. (2000).An Introduction to General Microbiology. A practical Approach. Bolabay Publications. Pp. 93 – 111.
Piper,A.M (1944).A Graphical Procedure in the Geochemical Interpretation of Water Analyses. American Geophysical Union Transactions, Vol.25:914-923
Standard Organization of Nigeria (2007). Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality. Nigerian Industrial Standards, NIS 554, Standards Organization of Nigeria.pp30
Steel, E. W. and Torence, P. R. (1979). McGhee Water Supply and Sewage, 5th Edition, Pp. 190 – 192.
Subba Rao, N., (2006). Seasonal variation of groundwater quality in part of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.Environmental Geology, 44(5), 579- 586.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (2002). National Recommended water Quality criteria. Washington DC, US. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2006). Guidelines for drinking water quality criteria, 2nd Ed, Vol.2, pp281-308, World Health Organization, Geneva.