Use of Activated Red Clay Soil from Kiteto District, Tanzania, as a Remedial Method for High Fluoride Levels in Drinking Water
International Journal of Science, Technology and Society
Volume 2, Issue 5, September 2014, Pages: 115-120
Received: Aug. 22, 2014; Accepted: Sep. 1, 2014; Published: Sep. 20, 2014
Views 2565      Downloads 150
Othman Chande Othman, Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam, P. O. Box 35061, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Joseph Yoeza Naimani Philip, Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam, P. O. Box 35061, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Mihayo Sahani Nkinda, Chemistry Department, Water Development and Management Institute, P. O. Box 35059, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Article Tools
Follow on us
The fluoride levels in the water samples were determined potentiometrically using a fluoride ion selective electrode. Different experiments on remediation of fluoride containing water with activated clay soil were carried out. Studies on effect of calcination temperature on activation of clay, minimum amount of calcinated clay soil giving optimum defluoridation, effect of contact time for optimal defluoridation and reusing activated soil for defluoridation of water were performed. The best activation temperature for the red clay soil from Kiteto District was found to be 700 °C. For best results, the clay should be heated at this temperature for 3 hours, allowed to cool then used. The optimum water defluoridation contact time was found to be 8 hours. It was established that for 100 mL of fluoridated water with 4.59 mg-F L-1, a minimum of 10 g of calcinated clay soil was required to reduce the concentration of fluoride ions to ≤1.1 mg-F L-1 which is well below the WHO recommended level of 1.5 mg-F L-1 for potable drinking water. The results also showed that the activated red clay soil can be repeatedly dried and re-used for the defluoridation process for a maximum of four times. It is recommended that the local red clay soil properly activated as described be used for the defluoridation of drinking water from Kiteto district, Tanzania. Investigation of possible usage of the activated clay soil for defluoridation of drinking water of other areas in the country is advocated.
Defluoridation, Activated clay soil, Adsorption, Kiteto-Tanzania, Potable water
To cite this article
Othman Chande Othman, Joseph Yoeza Naimani Philip, Mihayo Sahani Nkinda, Use of Activated Red Clay Soil from Kiteto District, Tanzania, as a Remedial Method for High Fluoride Levels in Drinking Water, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2014, pp. 115-120. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsts.20140205.14
Brindha K. and Elango L. (2011). Fluoride in groundwater: causes, implications and mitigation measures. In: Monroy, S.D. (Ed.), Fluoride properties, applications and environmental management. Nova Publishers, pp111–136.
Miller-Ihli N.J., Pehrsson P.R., Cutrifelli R.L. and Holden J.M. (2003). Fluoride content of municipal water in the United States: What percentage is fluoridated? J. Food Comp. Anal. 16: 621–628.
Ayoob S. and Gupta A.K. (2006). Fluoride in drinking water. A review on the status and stress effects in India. Critical Review’s in Environmental Science and Technology 36: 433–487.
Kashangili J.J. (2010). Assessment of groundwater availability and its current and potential use and impacts in Tanzania. Final Report Prepared for the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) pp 1–58.
TBS, (2008). TZS 789: Drinking (potable) water – Specification, ICS: 13.060.20, Tanzania Bureau of Standards.
Tewari A. and Dubey A. (2009). Defluoridation of drinking water: efficacy and need. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 1(1): 31–37.
Nawlakhe W.G., Kulkarni D.N., Pathak B.N., Bulusu K.R. (1975). Defluoridation of water by Nalgonda technique. Indian Journal of Environmental Health 17(1): 26–65.
Patil S.S. and Ingole N.W. (2012). Studies on defluoridation - A critical review. Journal of Engineering Research and Studies 3(1): 111–119.
Mckenzie J.M., Mark B.G., Thompson L.G., Schotterer U.L. and Lin P.N. (2009). A hydrogeochemical survey of Kilimanjaro (Tanzania): Implications for water sources and ages, Hydrogeology Journal 18: 985–995.
Shailaja K. and Johnson M.E. (2007). Fluorides in groundwater and its impact on health. J Environ. Biol. 28(2): 331–332.
Tailor G.S. and Chandel C.P.S. (2010). To assess the quality of ground water in Malpura Tehsil (Tonk, Rajasthan, India) with emphasis to fluoride concentration. Nature and Science 8: 20–26.
WHO (2011). Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 4th edition. World Health Organization, Geneva.
Msonda K.W.M., Masamba W.R.L. and Fabiano E. (2007). A Study of fluoride in groundwater occurrence in Nathenje, Lilongwe, Malawi. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts, A/B/C, 32:1178–1184.
Shimelis B., Zewge F. and Chandravanshi B.S. (2006). Removal of excess fluoride from water by aluminum hydroxide. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 20: 17–34.
Mohapatra M., Anand S., Mishra B.K., Giles D.E. and Singh P. (2009). Review of fluoride removal from drinking water. J Environ. Manage. 91: 67– 77.
Gomoro K., Zewge F., Hundhammer B. and Megersa N. (2012). Fluoride removal by adsorption on thermally treated lateritic soils. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 26: 361–372.
Emmanuel K.A., Ramaraju K.A., Rambabu G. and Rao A.V. (2008). Removal of fluoride from drinking water with activated carbons prepared from nitric acid activation. A comparative study. RJC Rasayan J. Chem. 1: 802–818.
Shrivastava A.K. and Sharm M.K. (2012). An innovative technique for removal of fluoride from drinking water. Sci. Revs. Chem. Commun. 2: 133–140.
Deshmukh W.S., Attar S.J. and Waghmare M.D. (2009). Investigation on sorption of fluoride in water using rice husk as an adsorbent. Nature, Environment and Pollution Technology 8: 217–223.
Alagumuthu G., Veeraputhiran V. and Venkataraman R. (2011). Fluoride sorption using Cynodon dactylon based activated carbon. Hemijska industrija 65: 23–35.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186