This work is aimed on exploiting the performance in a human-CNC machine interface (HCMI) environment. Here load cell based developed system is capable of measuring cognitive and motor action responses simultaneously. Performance measurement system designed may be replicated for other fields where systems are operated through control panels and also where responses of mentally retarded human-beings (or human beings with symptoms of Alzheimer disease) are to be observed and evaluated. Following main conclusions are drawn: (1) Optimum multi-performance characteristics for middle age operators are A1B3C3 (i.e. CNC machine panel height of 90 cm, panel angle of 90 degrees and working distance of 30 cm), (2) Percentage contributions of working distance, CNC machine panel angle and panel height are 55.93, 8.13 and 5.93, respectively and (3) An improvement of 41.12% in the multi-performance characteristics was achieved. This work has achieved a reasonable degree of validity through performing confirmation test. Practitioner Summary: The findings of this work are directly applicable to the practical field to improve the design of a CNC-machines system. This work suggests that those responsible for the functioning and operation of CNC machine workstations would have to redesign the system to reduce musculoskeletal injuries and other related problems of middle age male operators. Results presented in this paper can be quite useful for future system designers. It is emphasized that applying ergonomic principles to the design of CNC machines and interfaces can not only help to enhance machine performance and productivity, but can also enable the human operator to feel comfortable and secure. As most companies have acquired Automated Manufacturing Technology in recent years to be competitive, ergonomic and safety considerations are of the utmost importance in the design phase.
Imtiaz Ali Khan,
Multi-Response Ergonomic Analysis of Middle Age Group CNC Machine Operators, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2014, pp. 133-151.
Bautmans et al., 2011 I. Bautmans, S. Vantieghem, E. Gorus, Yuri-Reva Grazzini, Y. Fierens, A. Pool-Goudzwaard and T. Mets, Age-related differences in pre-movement antagonist muscle co-activation and reaction-time performance. Journal of Experimental Gerontology, 46 8 (2011), pp. 637-642.
Bedny and Karwowski, 2006 G. Bedny and W. Karwowski, A systematic-structural theory of activity: Applications to human performance and work design, CRC Press (2006), Boca Raton.
Bergmann et al., 2011 G. Bergmann, F. Graichen, A. Bender, A. Rohlmann, A. Halder, A. Beier and P. Westerhoff, In vivo gleno-humeral joint loads during forward flexion and abduction. Journal of Biomechanics, 44 8 (2011), pp. 1543-1552.
Bothell, 2004 D. Bothell, Act-r 6.0 Reference Manual. Working Draft, Carnegie Mellon University.
Chen and Chiang, 2011 Chien-Hsiung Chen and Shu-Ying Chiang, The effects of Panel arrangement on search performance. Journal of Displays, 32 5 (2011), pp. 254-260.
Chen et al., 1994 H.C. Chen, J.A. Ashton-Miller, N.B. Alexander and A.B. Schultz, Effects of age and available response time on ability to step over an obstacle. Journal of Gerontol, 49 (1994), pp. M227-M233.
Chikhaoui and Pigot, 2010 B. Chikhaoui and H. Pigot, Towards analytical evaluation of human machine interfaces developed in the context of smart homes. Journal of Interacting with Computers, 22 6 (2010), pp. 449-464.
Choi et al., 2010 J.H. Choi, Sung-Woo Park, Seung-Yeob Baek and K. Lee, Evaluation of handheld products by computing user hand fatigue. Journal of Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 18 2 (2010), pp. 230-239.
Chung et al., 2010 M.K. Chung, D. Kim, S. Na and D. Lee, Usability evaluation of numeric entry tasks on keypad type and age. Industrial Ergonomics, 40 1 (2010), pp. 97-105.
Cousins et al., 1998 M.S. Cousins, C. Corrow, M. Finn and J.D. Salamone, Temporal measures of human finger tapping: effects of age. Journal of Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 59 (1998), pp. 445-449.
Dartt et al., 2009 A. Dartt, J. Rosecrance, F. Gerr, P. Chen, D. Anton and L. Merlino, Reliability of assessing upper limb postures among workers performing manufacturing tasks. Applied Ergonomics, 40 3 (2009), pp. 371-378.
Design Expert Software, 2012 Design Expert Software, Version 18.104.22.168 (2012), http://www.statease.com.
Elias et al., 1993 M.F. Elias, M.A. Robbins, L.J. Walter and N.R. Schultz Jr., The influence of gender and age on Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological test performance. Journal of Gerontol, 48 (1993), pp. 278-281.
Endrass et al., 2012 T. Endrass, M. Schreiber and N. Kathmann, Speeding up older adults: Age-effects on error processing in speed and accuracy conditions. Journal of Biological Psychology, 89 2 (2012), pp. 426-432.
Germine et al., 2011 L.T. Germine, B. Duchaine and K. Nakayama, Where cognitive development and aging meet: Face learning ability peaks after age 30. Journal of Cognition, 118 2 (2011), pp. 201-210.
Goel et al., 2011 P. Goel, Z.A. Khan, A.N. Siddiquee, S. Kamaruddin and R.K. Gupta, Influence of slab milling process parameters on surface integrity of HSLA: a multi-performance characteristic optimization. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, (2011), DOI 10.1007/s00170-011-3763-y, Published online 22.11.2011.
Goldhammer et al., 2010 F. Goldhammer, W.A. Rauch, K. Schweizer and H. Moosbrugger, Differential effects of intelligence, perceptual speed and age on growth in attentional speed and accuracy. Journal of Intelligence, 38 1 (2010), pp. 83-92.
Hansson et al., 2010 Gert-Ake Hansson, I. Balogh, K. Ohlsson, L. Granqvist, C. Nordander, I. Arvidsson, I. Akesson, J. Unge, R. Rittner, U. Stromberg and S. Skerfving, Physical workload in various types of work: Part II. Neck, shoulder and upper arm. Industrial Ergonomics, 40 3 (2010), pp. 267-281.
Hawthorn, 2000 D. Hawthorn, Possible implications of aging for interface designers. Journal of Interacting with Computers, 12 5 (2000), pp. 507-528.
Hermsdorfer et al., 1999 J. Hermsdorfer, C. Marquardt, S. Wack and N. Mai, Comparative analysis of diadochokinetic movements. Electromyography and Kinesiology, 9 (1999), pp. 283-295.
Imtiaz and Asghar, 2010 Imtiaz A. Khan and Mohd. Asghar, Ergonomic evaluation of the angle of abduction in a computer numerically controlled electro discharge machine environment. Journal of Cognition Technology & Work, 12 4 (2010), pp. 263-269.
Imtiaz and Asghar, 2011 Imtiaz A. Khan and Mohammad Asghar, Ergonomic design of the viewing angle in a computer numerically controlled electro discharge machine environment, Waldemar Karwowski, Gavriel Salvendy, Editors, Advances in Human Factors, Ergonomics and Safety in Manufacturing and Service Industries, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, New York (2011), pp. 169-179.
Imtiaz and Saraswat, 2009 Imtiaz A. Khan and S. Saraswat, Role of ergonomists in automated industries. Proceedings: All India Seminar on Ergonomics for Improved Productivity, Aligarh 202002 India, (2009), pp. 177-182.
Imtiaz, 2012 Imtiaz A. Khan, Ergonomic design of human-CNC machine interface, Inaki Maurtua, Editor, Human Machine Interaction-Getting Closer, InTech Open Access Publisher, Croatia (2012), pp. 115-136.
Jimenez-Jimenez et al., 2011 F.J. Jimenez-Jimenez, M. Calleja, H. Alonso-Navarro, L. Rubio, F. Navacerrada, B. Pilo-de-Fuente, J.F. Plaza-Nieto, M. Arroyo-Solera, P.J. Garcia-Ruiz, E. Garcia-Martin and J.A.G. Agundez, Influence of age and gender in motor performance in healthy subjects. Journal of Neurological Sciences, 302 1-2 (2011), pp. 72-80.
Kang and Yoon, 2008 N.E. Kang and W.C. Yoon, Age- and experience-related user behavior differences in the use of complicated electronic devices. Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66 6 (2008), pp. 425-437.
Kee and Lee, 2012 D. Kee and I. Lee, Relationships between subjective and objective measures in assessing postural stresses. Applied Ergonomics, 43 2 (2012), pp. 277-282.
Kim et al., 2009 H.K. Kim, S. Park and M.A. Srinivasan, Developments in brain-machine interfaces from the perspective of robotics. Journal of Human Movement Science, 28 2 (2009), pp. 191-203.
King and Fries, 2009 Paul H. King and Richard C. Fries, Design of biomedical devices and systems, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, New York (2009), pp. 146.
Koo and Mak, 2005 Terry K.K. Koo and Arthur F.T. Mak, Feasibility of using EMG driven neuromusculoskeletal model for prediction of dynamic movement of the elbow. Electromyography and Kinesiology, 15 1 (2005), pp. 12-26.
Layer et al., 2009 J.K. Layer, W. Karwowski and A. Furr, The effect of cognitive demands and perceived quality of work life on human performance in manufacturing environments. Industrial Ergonomics, 39 2 (2009), pp. 413-421.
Lindberg et al., 2006 T. Lindberg, R. Nasanen and K. Muller, How age affects the speed of perception of computer icons. Journal of Displays, 27 4-5 (2006), pp. 170-177.
Lin et al., 2010 Chih-Long Lin, Mao-Jiun J. Wang, C.G. Drury and Yu-Sheng Chen, Evaluation of perceived discomfort in repetitive arm reaching and holding tasks. Industrial Ergonomics, 40 1 (2010), pp. 90-96.
Maldonado-Macias et al., 2009 A. Maldonado-Macias, M.G. Ramirez, J.L. Garcia, J.J. Diaz and S. Noriega, Ergonomic evaluation of work stations related with the operation of advanced manufacturing technology equipment: Two cases of study. XV Congreso Internacional de ergonomia SEMAC, (2009).
Nissen and Corkin, 1985 M.J. Nissen and S. Corkin, Effectiveness of attentional cueing in older and younger adults. Journal of Gerontol, 40 (1985), pp. 185-191.
OSHA, 2011 OSHA, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, website http://www.dazor.com/OSHA.pdf as browsed on 18.11.2011.
Pelosi and Blumhardt, 1999 L. Pelosi and L.D. Blumhardt, Effects of age on working memory: an event-related potential study . Journal of Cognitive Brain Research, 7 3 (1999), pp. 321-334.
Ruff and Parker, 1993 R.M. Ruff and S.B. Parker, Gender- and age-specific changes in motor speed and eye-hand coordination in adults: normative values for the finger tapping and grooved pegboard tests. Percept Motor Skills, 76 (1993), pp. 1219-1230.
Samant et al., 2008 A.N. Samant, S.R. Paital and N.B. Dahotre, Process optimization in laser surface structuring of alumina. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 203 (2008), pp. 498-504.
Sanders and McCormick, 1992 M.S. Sanders and E.J. McCormick, Human factors in engineering and design, 7th ed. (1992), NY: McGraw-Hill.
Seidler et al., 2010 R.D. Seidler, J.A. Bernard, T.B. Burutolu, B.W. Fling, M.T. Gordon, J.T. Gwin, Y. Kwak and D.B. Lipps, Motor control and aging: Links to age-related brain structural, functional and biochemical effects. Neuroscience & Behavioral Reviews, 34 5 (2010), pp. 721-733.
Serna et al., 2007 Audrey Serna, H. Pigot and V. Rialle, A computational model of activities performance decrease in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Medical Informatics, 76 3 (2007), pp. S377-S383.
Shimoyama et al., 1990 I. Shimoyama, T. Ninchoji and K. Uemura, The finger-tapping test: A quantitative analysis. Arch Neurol, 47 (1990), pp. 681-684.
Span et al., 2004 M.M. Span, K.R. Ridderinkhof and M.W. van der Molen, Age-related changes in the efficiency of cognitive processing across the life span. Journal of Acta Psychologica, 117 2 (2004), pp. 155-183.
Straker et al., 2009 L. Straker, R. Burgess-Limerick, C. Pollock and B. Maslen, The influence of desk and display design on posture and muscle activity variability whilst performing information technology tasks. Applied Ergonomics, 40 5 (2009), pp. 852-859.
Vieira and Kumar, 2007 E.R. Vieira and S. Kumar, Occupational risks factors identified and interventions suggested by welders and computer numeric control workers to control low back disorders in two steel companies. Industrial Ergonomics, 37 6 (2007), pp. 553-561.
Yang et al., 2006 Y.Y. Yang, J.R. Shie and C.H. Huang, Optimization of dry machining parameters for high purity graphite in end-milling process. Journal of Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 21 (2006), pp. 832-837