Development of “Press Tap” Hand Washing Technology: Design, Construction and Operational Aspects
International Journal of Science, Technology and Society
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2016, Pages: 48-56
Received: May 22, 2016; Accepted: May 30, 2016; Published: Jun. 13, 2016
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Ababu T. Tiruneh, Department of Environmental Health Science, University of Swaziland, Mbabane, Swaziland
William N. Ndlela, Department of Environmental Health Science, University of Swaziland, Mbabane, Swaziland
Jonna Heikkilä, Faculty of Technology, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland
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Achieving hygiene through hand washing is an important intervention in interrupting the cycle of transmission of communicable diseases. A hand washing facility named “Press Tap” has been developed and was successfully tested in different user environments. The hand washing device - which is simple and low cost - works on a foot pressing mechanism and integrates the usage of soaps using the same mechanism. This paper presents the conceptual development of the Press Tap including the governing hydraulic equations of flow that form the theoretical basis for the design of the hand washing facility. The paper also gives the construction features of the different components as well as useful operation aspects that were realized during the pilot trials of the device in different user environments.
Hygiene, Hand Washing, Tippy Tap, Water Supply, Sanitation, Toilets, Public Health, Infectious Diseases
To cite this article
Ababu T. Tiruneh, William N. Ndlela, Jonna Heikkilä, Development of “Press Tap” Hand Washing Technology: Design, Construction and Operational Aspects, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2016, pp. 48-56. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsts.20160403.12
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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