Development of “Press Tap” Hand Washing Technology: Design, Construction and Operational Aspects
International Journal of Science, Technology and Society
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2016, Pages: 48-56
Received: May 22, 2016;
Accepted: May 30, 2016;
Published: Jun. 13, 2016
Views 5094 Downloads 118
Ababu T. Tiruneh, Department of Environmental Health Science, University of Swaziland, Mbabane, Swaziland
William N. Ndlela, Department of Environmental Health Science, University of Swaziland, Mbabane, Swaziland
Jonna Heikkilä, Faculty of Technology, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland
Achieving hygiene through hand washing is an important intervention in interrupting the cycle of transmission of communicable diseases. A hand washing facility named “Press Tap” has been developed and was successfully tested in different user environments. The hand washing device - which is simple and low cost - works on a foot pressing mechanism and integrates the usage of soaps using the same mechanism. This paper presents the conceptual development of the Press Tap including the governing hydraulic equations of flow that form the theoretical basis for the design of the hand washing facility. The paper also gives the construction features of the different components as well as useful operation aspects that were realized during the pilot trials of the device in different user environments.
Ababu T. Tiruneh,
William N. Ndlela,
Development of “Press Tap” Hand Washing Technology: Design, Construction and Operational Aspects, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society.
Vol. 4, No. 3,
2016, pp. 48-56.
Walker CLF, Rudan I, Liu L, Nair H, Theodoratou E, Bhutta ZA, O'Brien KL, Campbell H, Black RE (2013). Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhea. Lancet., 381 (9875): 1405-1416.
Cairncross S, Hunt C, Boisson S, Bostoen K, Curtis V, Fung IC, Schmidt W-P (2010). Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhea. Int J Epidemiol., 39: 1193-1205.
Aiello AECRM, Perez V, Larson EL (2008). Effect of Hand Hygiene on Infectious Disease Risk in the Community Setting: A Meta-Analysis. Am J Public Health, 98 (8): 1372-1381.
Global Public-Private Partnership for Hand washing (2015). Accessed on May 21, 2016 from: http://globalhandwashing.org/
Devine J (2009). Introducing SaniFOAM: A Framework to Analyze Sanitation Behaviors to Design Effective Sanitation Programs, in Water and Sanitation Program: Working Paper, Washington DC: World Bank, Water and Sanitation Program.
Hulland KRS, Elli Leontsini E, Dreibelbis R, Unicomb L, Afroz, A, Dutta NC, Nizamme FA, Luby SP, Ram PK and Winch PJ (2013). Designing a hand washing station for infrastructure-restricted communities in Bangladesh using the integrated behavioral model for water, sanitation and hygiene interventions (IBM-WASH). BMC Public Health BMC series, 13:877.
Devine J (2010). Beyond tippy-taps: The role of enabling products in scaling up and sustaining hand washing. Waterlines Vol. 29 No. 4.
Kane, M. (2009) Rapport Etude Lavage des Mains Au Savon Senegal, unpublished study, Water and Sanitation Program, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Delisio, K. (2009) Behavioral Determinants of Hand washing among Peruvian Caregivers: Analysis of Baseline Data from The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP)’s Scaling Up Hand washing Behavior Change Initiative (Master’s Thesis, John Hopkins University).
Luby, S., Halder, A., Tronchet, C., Akhter, S., Bhuiya, A. and Johnson, R. (2009) ‘Household characteristics associated with hand washing with soap in rural Bangladesh’, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81: 882-7.
Scott, B., Curtis, V., Rabie, T. and Garbrah-Aidoo, N. (2007) ‘Health in our hands but not in our heads: Understanding hygiene motivation in Ghana’, Health Policy and Planning 22: 225-33.
Cairncross, S., Shordt, K., Zacharia, S. and Kumari Govindan, B. (2005) ‘What causes sustainable changes in hygiene behavior? A cross-sectional study from Kerala India’, Social Science and Medicine 61: 2212-20.
USAID (2015). Use of Tippy Taps and Hand washing Practices in Southern Bangladesh. JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc. Arlington, VA 22209 USA.
Curtis VA, Danquah LO, Aunger RV (2009). Planned, motivated and habitual hygiene behavior: an eleven country review. Health Educ Res., 24 (4): 655-673.
Fisher J (2008). Women in water supply, sanitation and hygiene programmes. Proc ICE Munic Eng., 161 (4): 223-229.
Chapin, J. (2009) Designing a Hand washing Station for Rural Vietnamese Households, presentation, Water and Sanitation Program, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Watt, J. (1988). The Tippy Tap: A simple hand washing device for rural areas. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 34: 91-92.
Naughton CC (2013). Assessing Appropriate Technology Hand washing Stations in Mali, West Africa. M. Sc. thesis, University of South Florida.
Biran, A (2011). Enabling technologies for hand washing with soap: A case study on the Tippy-Tap in Uganda.” Global Scaling Up Hand washing Project Water and Sanitation Program.
Sreenivasan N, Gotestrand SA, Ombeki S, Oluoch G, Fischer TK, Quick R. (2015). Evaluation of the impact of a simple hand-washing and water-treatment intervention in rural health facilities on hygiene knowledge and reported behaviors of health workers and their clients, Nyanza Province, Kenya, 2008. Epidemiol Infect, 143(4): 873-80.
Bennett SD, Otieno R, Ayers TL, Odhiambo A, Faith SH, Quick R (2015) Acceptability and use of portable drinking water and hand washing stations in health care facilities and their impact on patient hygiene practices, Western Kenya. PLoS ONE.:10(5): e0126916.
Christensen G, Dentz HN, Pickering AJ, Bourdier T, Arnold BF, Colford JM Jr, Null C.(2015) Pilot cluster randomized controlled trials to evaluate adoption of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions and their combination in rural western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 92(2): 437-47.
Contzen N, Meili IH, Mosler HJ (2015). Changing hand washing behavior in southern Ethiopia: A longitudinal study on infrastructural and commitment interventions. Social Science & Medicine, 124: 103-14.
Mbuya MN, Tavengwa NV, Stoltzfus RJ, Curtis V, Pelto GH, Ntozini R, Kambarami RA, Fundira D, Malaba TR, Maunze D, Morgan P, Mangwadu G, Humphrey JH (2015) Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) Trial Team. Design of an Intervention to Minimize Ingestion of Fecal Microbes by Young Children in Rural Zimbabwe. Clin Infect Dis., 61(7): S703-709.
Harris Interactive (2010). Survey of hand washing behavior. Retrieved from http://www.microbeworld.org/images/stories/washup/2010_handwashing_behavior.survey.pdf.