International Journal of Science, Technology and Society
Volume 8, Issue 3, May 2020, Pages: 66-72
Received: Mar. 2, 2020;
Accepted: Apr. 8, 2020;
Published: Jun. 17, 2020
Views 105 Downloads 40
Theodor Itten, Independent Researcher, St. Gallen, Switzerland
Rage – a sudden outburst of explosive and often destructive anger – is part of the human condition. Yet it is one that often hits the headlines in the context of celebrity outburst, domestic violence and road rage. Whether this violent anger is directed at complete strangers or people within our social spheres, it has developed its own terminology – ‘losing one’s cool, air rage, road rage, trolley rage are all increasingly accepted as a part of the pressures of modern day. This essay offers case studies which supply new socio-psychological and therapeutic insights, based on social-anthropological data. The author goes on to explore the triggers and characteristics associated with rage, from the perspective of both perpetrator and victim. He argues that there are evolutionary factors behind the physiological manifestations of rage – conflicts between our animal instincts and our need to function as a human, in a group. Using the analogy of a volcano to capture the intense energy and unpredictability of episodes of sudden rage, he puts forward several theories for the increasing prevalence of rage in modern society. His social phenomenological research suggests that the incidence of rage is significantly higher in densely populated, industrialized and computerized societies. Drawing on his own in-depth study, carried out in Switzerland, he estimates that around of a quarter of the population are prone to rage attacks – a startlingly high proportion. Itten argues that the therapeutic practitioner has a clear role to play in helping rage sufferers to devise positive strategies to manage their explosive emotions, developing routes out of rage. An open and frank appraisal of the ugly and destructive nature of sudden rage is the starting point, working with sufferers to build a deeper sense of self-esteem and self-confidence, so that they are de-sensitized and learn strategies to defuse anger and cope with situations which previously might have resulted in another explosion.
The Social Anthropology of Rage and Its Psychotherapeutic Challenge, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society.
Vol. 8, No. 3,
2020, pp. 66-72.
Roberts, R., Becirevic, E. & Paul, S. (2011) Truth and Denial: Psychological Perspectives on Reconciliation in Bosnia. In: Elford, R. J. (Ed.) Just Reconciliation. Bern: Peter Lang.
Samara, T. (2005) SREBRENICA – 11/07/95. Sarajevo: Agencija Grazia Neri.
Peress, G. (1994) Farewell to Bosnia. Zürich: Scalo.
Gowers, E. (2012) Design on Nature. London: TLS, August 17&24 2012 No5707/8.
Borger, S. (2012) Tollster Tag meines Lebens. St. Galler Tablatt, Montag, 6. August, p5.
Reich, R. (2012) Beyond Outrage. New York: Vintage Books
Day, E. (2008) ‘If anyone else says: Cheer up, love’ London: The Observer. 15. June, 2008.
Kagan, J. (2012) Psychology’s Ghosts. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Darwin, C (1872 / 2009) The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Huxley, F. (1959) Charles Darwin – Life and Habit. American Scholar, 1959, Vol. 29, 30, No. 4, 1,
Panksepp, J (1998) Affective Neuroscience – The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jerram, L. (2011) Streetlife. Oxford: University Press.
Rabinbach, A. (2012) Violence and the City. London: TLS, August 5, No 5653, 7-8.
The Week (2011) The Rule of the Mob-How the police lost control of our cities. 13. August, Issue 830, p. 4.
Turnbull, C. (1974) The Mountain People. London: Picador.
Itten, T. (2011) Rage – Managing an Explosive Emotion. Faringdon: Libri Publishing.
Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990) Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques, 2. Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication (17) Mayring, P (2002) Qualitative Sozialforschung. Weinheim, Belz.
Mark Asbridge, Reginald G. Smart, Robert E. Mann. Can We Prevent Road Rage? April Trauma Violence Abuse. 2006 Apr; 7 (2): 109-21.
Smart, R. G; Mann, R. E. & Stoduto, G. (2003) The prevalence of road rage: estimates from Ontario. In: Canadian journal of public health. Revue canadienne de santé publique. 94 (4): 247-50.
Lévi-Strauss, C. (2011) L’Athropologie Face Aux Problèmes Du Monde Moderne. Paris Seuil.
Briggs, J. L. (1970) Never in Anger. Portrait of an Eskimo Family. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
Eigen, M. (2002) Rage. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press
Balint, M. (1968) The Basic Fault - Therapeutic Aspects of Regression. London: Tavistock
Ferenczi, S. (1988) Ohne Sympathie keine Heilung. Frankfurt: Fischer (Casper, M. J. (1998) The Making of the Unborn Patient: A Social Anatomy of Fetal Surgery. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Lambert, M. J. & Bergin, A. E. (1994) The effectiveness of psychotherapy. In: Bergin, A. E. & Garfield, S. L. (Eds) Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behaviour Change. New York: Wiley pp. 143-189.
Tschuscke, V. Kächele H (1998) Was Leistet Psychotherapie? In: Fäh, M. & Fischer, G. (Eds.) Sinn und Unsinn der Psychotherapieforschung. Giessen: Psychosozial Verlag pp. 137-162.
Mattanza G Meier I Schlegel M (2006) Seele und Forschung - Ein Brückenschlag in der Psychotherapie. Basel: Karger.
Tschuschke, V., Crameri, A., Koemeda, M., Schulthess, P., Von Wyl, A., Weber, R. (2010) Fundamental Reflections on Psychotherapy. Research and Initial Results of the Naturalistic Psychotherapy Study on Outpatient Treatment in Switzerland (PAP-S). International Journal for Psychotherapy: Journal of the European Association for Psychotherapy (EAP) 14 (3) Nov 2010, 23 -35.
Tschuschke, V., Crameri, A., Koehler, M., Berglar, J., Muth, K., Staczan, P., von Wyl, A., Schulthess, P. & Koemeda-Lutz, M. (2015). The role of therapists' treatment adherence, professional experience, therapeutic alliance, and clients' severity of psychological problems: Prediction of treatment outcome in eight different psychotherapy approaches. Preliminary results of a naturalistic study. Psychotherapy Research. Volume 25, 2015 - Issue 4, pp. 420-434.