Climate Change Evolution and Indigenous Methods of Flood Control in the Upper Nun Valley of Cameroon
American Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering
Volume 4, Issue 2, March 2019, Pages: 56-66
Received: Mar. 8, 2019;
Accepted: Apr. 23, 2019;
Published: May 26, 2019
Views 715 Downloads 105
Cordelia Givecheh Kometa, Department of Topography and Real Estate Management, Higher Technical Teachers’ Training College, University of Buea, Kumba, Cameroon
This study discusses the evolution of climate change and the use of indigenous methods of flood control in the Upper Nun Valley of Cameroon. The local farmers of the Ndop plain have developed and implemented extensive indigenous farming systems as adaptation strategies to reduce the vulnerability of climate variability over the years. However, these indigenous methods of flood control have not been sustainable enough to guard against severe flood incidences in the Ndop Plain as a result of climate change impact. This paper examines climate change evolution in the region and highlights some indigenous adaptation strategies practised in the Upper Nun Valley and the benefits of integrating such indigenous knowledge into formal climate change adaptation strategies. To ensure stability in food production and sustain food sufficiency in areas where local economies entirely depend on farming and the natural state of the environment, it is important to investigate the indigenous strategies put in place and the extent to which they combat floods in the Ndop Plain. Field surveys, focus group discussions, interviews, participant observation methods and secondary sources were used to collect data from selected villages where rice cultivation and market gardening products are on the increase. Based on climatic data for the region, the simple forecasting method using the forecasting line was used to predict future changes in climatic conditions for the region and the extent to which they may cause floods. The data collected were analyzed in both qualitative and quantitative terms to provide information for the discussion. The results reveal that changes in temperature and rainfall have altered the climatic conditions of the region leading to increased flood incidences in the Plain. The paper posited that a sustainable adaptation mechanism should take into consideration the widening of the drains as well as minimizing the cultivation of crops on the drains which serve as gateways to excessive water into the rice fields. The study also recommends the need to incorporate indigenous knowledge into climate change policies that can lead to the development of effective adaptation strategies that are cost-effective, participatory and sustainable.
Cordelia Givecheh Kometa,
Climate Change Evolution and Indigenous Methods of Flood Control in the Upper Nun Valley of Cameroon, American Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering.
Vol. 4, No. 2,
2019, pp. 56-66.
Babungo Agricultural Post, Ngoketunjia, North West Region, Cameroon (2009).
Easton, P. B. (2004). Education and Indigenous Knowledge. In R. Woytek, P. Shrof Mehta, & P. C. Mohan (Eds.), Indigenous Knowledge. Local Pathways to GlobalDevelopment. Marking Five Years of the World Bank Indigenous Knowledge forDevelopment Program, (pp. 9-12). Knowledge and Learning Group Africa Region: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http: //worldbank.org/afr/ik/default.htm.
FAO.(2008): Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in the Food and Agriculture Sector. (p. 17). Technical Background Document, Rome, Italy: FAO.
FAO, (2010): Climate-Smart Agriculture: Policies, Practices and Financing for Food Security, Adaptation and Mitigation. Rome: FAO, 42 pp.
Green, D., & Raygorodetsky, G. (2010). Indigenous knowledge of a Changing Climate. Climatic Change, 100, 239-242.
Grenier, L. (1998). Working with Indigenous Knowledge: A Guide for Researchers Manual. (p. 100). IDRC, Canada.
Hawkins. P and Brunt. M. (1965): The soils and ecology of west Cameroon (with special refernce to the Bamenda Area), FAO, N°2083, Rome
IPCC (2007): Contribution of working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC – Summary for Policy Makers. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.ipcc.ch:
Kometa S. S. (2012): Flood Characteristics and Implication for Agriculture within the Ndop Plain, North West Region of Cameroon. in Journal of Applied Social Sciences, A Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, Number 1, pp 107.
Lambi C. M. (2001): The Bamendjin Dam of the Upper Nun Valley of Cameroon; No Human Paradise. In Culture and Environment, A Reader in Environmental Education, Design House, Limbe, Cameroon. pp 223 – 231.
McGregor, D. (2004). Traditional Ecological knowledge and Sustainable Development Towards Coexistence, IDRC. Retrieved from: http://www.idec:en:er-64525-201-Do_Topic.html.
Melchias, G. (2001). Biodiversity and Conservation. Enfield: Science.
Newsham, A. J., &Thomas, D. S. G. ( 2011). Knowing, farming and climate change adaptation in North-Central Namibia. Global Environmental Change, 21, 761-770.
MINADER (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development), (2009):Stratégie Nationale de Développement de la Riziculture au Cameroun: Mouture III. Yaoundé- Cameroun: MINADER, 21 pp.
Nyong, A., Adesina, F., & Elasha, B. O. (2007). The value of Indigenous knowledge in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies in the African Sahel. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies. Global Change, 12, 787-797.
Salick and Byg, (2007). Indigenous Peoples and Climate Change. Report of Symposium 2-13 April 2007. Tyndal Centre for Climate Change Research, Oxford, UK: A Tyndal Centre Publication available at http: //www.ecdgroup.com.docs/pdf.
Sharma, P. K (1989): Effect of Period Moisture Stress on Water-use Efficiency in Wetland Rice, Oryza,26:252-257.
Shemsanga, C., Omambia, N. A. and Gu, Y. (2010): The Costs of Climate Change in Tanzania. Impacts and Adaptations. Journal of American Science, Vol 6 (3), pp. 182-196.
Tata, E. S. (2016): Climate Variability and Wetland Exploitation in the Bui-Ngoketunjia Divisions of Cameroon: Development Implications, Unpublished PH.D Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Buea, pp 346.
Wassmann, R (2010). Advanced technologies of rice production for coping with climate change: ‘no regret’ options for adaptation and mitigation and their practical uptake. Proceedings of the workshop Advanced Technologies for Adaptation for coping with Climate Change: ‘No Regret’ Options for Adaptation and Mitigation and their Potential Uptake held on 23-25 June 2010 in Los Banos (Philippines), Los Baños Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.
Ziervogal, G. and Opere, A. (2010): Integrating Meteorological and IK-based Seasonal Climate Change Forecasts in Agricultural Sector. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. Climate Change Adaptation in African learning Paper Series.
Zoellick, Robert B. (2009): A Climate Smart Future. The Nation Newspapers. Vintage Press Limited, Lagos, Nigeria. Page 18.