Does the Differences in 6, 7, and 8-Year-Old Children’s Reading and Writing Success has to do With Diligence Rather than Intelligence
International Journal of Elementary Education
Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 105-114
Received: Nov. 15, 2014; Accepted: Nov. 30, 2014; Published: Dec. 5, 2014
Views 3247      Downloads 269
Authors
Teinye Briggs, Department of Applied Sciences of Education, Faculty of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Nwachukwu Prince Ololube, Department of Educational Management and Planning, Faculty of Education, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The study is a follow up to a study that was previously conducted by the authors (Briggs, Ololube, & Kpolovie, 2014) on “Managing Children Learning: Support Based Screening Procedure for Motor, Cognition and Language Communication in Early Childhood Education”. Limited data are available that describe the relative impact of diligence and intelligence in children’s reading and writing skills in sub-Saharan Africa. In today’s world, young children look for attention and engage in positive or negative behavior to attain it. It is important that teachers recognize the diligence and intelligence worth of their students on a consistent basis, as research literature in education is devoting increasing attention to the role of children’s effort in academic performance. This study posits two constructs: diligence and intelligence, which express or reflect individual children’s efforts toward achieving reading and writing success. A Diligence and Intelligence Inventory was developed with assistance from experts to elicit data from 6, 7, and 8-year-old children’s teachers on their pupils’ achievements in reading and writing. Using Cronback analysis and construct validation procedures, the instrument was certified to have internal consistency. The results from 321 schoolchildren revealed a significant statistical difference between diligence and intelligence. The academic and practical implications of this study to educational practice include a greater need to complement the efforts of young children in their pursuit for balanced educational development.
Keywords
Diligence, Intelligence, Reading and Writing, Academic Success, Schoolchildren, Nigeria
To cite this article
Teinye Briggs, Nwachukwu Prince Ololube, Does the Differences in 6, 7, and 8-Year-Old Children’s Reading and Writing Success has to do With Diligence Rather than Intelligence, International Journal of Elementary Education. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2014, pp. 105-114. doi: 10.11648/j.ijeedu.20140305.11
References
[1]
Asraf, R. M., & Ahmad, I. S. (2003). Promoting English language development and the reading habit among students in rural schools through the Guided Extensive Reading program. Reading in a Foreign Language, 15(2), 83-102.
[2]
Bay, C. S. (2009). How to teach children diligence. Retrieved from http://www.helium.com/items/1479245-teaching-children-diligence
[3]
Briggs, T., Ololube, N. P., & Kpolovie, P. J. (2014). Managing children learning: support based screening procedure for motor, cognition and language communication in early childhood education. International Journal of Management in Education, 8(2), 168-193. doi: 10.1504/IJMIE.2014.060234.
[4]
Briggs, T., Ololube, N. P., Kpolovie, P. J., Amaele, S., & Amanchukwu, R. N. (2012). Evaluating the quality of public early childhood education and Vision 20: 2020: the role of government. African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development, 1(3), 243-264. doi: 10.1504/AJESD.2012.049289
[5]
Brody, L. E., & Mills, C. J. (1997). Gifted children with learning disabilities: a review of the issues. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(3), 282-286.
[6]
Carless, D. (2004), Issues in Teachers' Reinterpretation of a Task-Based Innovation in Primary Schools. TESOL Quarterly, 38(4), 639–662. doi: 10.2307/3588283.
[7]
Carless, D. (2009). Learning-oriented assessment: Principles, practice and a project. In L. H. Meyer, S. Davidson, H. Anderson, R. Fletcher, P. M. Johnston, & M. Rees (Eds.), Tertiary Assessment & Higher Education Student Outcomes: Policy, Practice & Research (pp.79-90). Wellington, New Zealand: Ako Aotearoa.
[8]
Chall, J. S., & Jacobs, V. A. (1983). Writing and Reading in the Elementary Grades: Developmental Trends Among Low SES Children. Language Arts, 60(5), 617-626.
[9]
Chang, A. C. S., & Millett, S. (2013). Improving reading rates and comprehension through timed repeated reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 25(2), 126-148.
[10]
Colbert, J. (2008). Brain Development Research Can Influence Early Childhood Curriculum. Retrieved from http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=245
[11]
Cotton, S. M., & Crewther, S. G. (2009). The Relationship Between Reading and Intelligence in Primary School Aged Children: Implications for Definitional Models of Dyslexia. The Open Education Journal, 2, 42-50.
[12]
Cronback, L. J., Gleser, G., Nanda, H., & Rajarratnam, N. (1972). The dependability of behavioural measurement. New York, NY: Willey.
[13]
Dewar, G. (2013). Harmful beliefs: How a theory of intelligence can hamper your child’s ability to learn. Retrieved from http://www.parentingscience.com/theory-of-intelligence.html
[14]
Driscoll, M. (2001). Psychology of learning for assessment (2nd ed.). Boston. MA: Allyn and Bacon.
[15]
Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY: Random House.
[16]
Eliasmith, C. (Ed.) (2001). Memory. Dictionary of philosophy of mind. Pullman, WA: Washington State University.
[17]
Elliot, A., & Dweck, C. S. (2005). Handbook of competence and motivation. New York, NY: Guilford.
[18]
Fisher, T. (2013). Teach to Each Child’s Intelligence. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/thomas-fisher/teach-to-each-childs-inte_b_2251444.html
[19]
Flowers, L., Meyer, M., Lovato, J., Wood, F., & Felton, R. (2000). Does third grade discrepancy status predict the course of reading development? Ann Dyslexia, 50, 49-71.
[20]
Flynn, J. (2011). Writing is a uniquely human activity; and therefore, a wonder to watch develop. Retrieved November 11, 2014 from http://www.fundanoodle.com/blog/writing-is-a-uniquely-human-activity-and-therefore-a-wonder-to-watch-develop.
[21]
Gardner, H. (1983), Frames of mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. New York, NY: Perseus Books.
[22]
Gustafson, S., & Samuelsson, S. (1999). Intelligence and dyslexia: Implications for diagnosis and intervention. Scandinavia Journal of School Psychology, 40, 127-134.
[23]
Harrison, C. (2004). Understanding reading development. London: Sage Publications.
[24]
Hashmi, F. K. H. (n.d.). Reading. Retrieved from http://www.hrmars.com/admin/pics/82.pdf
[25]
http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=245
[26]
Hu, R. (2009). English Reading Instruction in Elementary Schools in China. The Reading Matrix, 9(2), 150-165.
[27]
Huttenlocher, J., Haight, W., Bryk, A., Seltzer, M., & Lyons, T. (1991). Early Vocabulary Growth: Relation to Language Input and Gender. Developmental Psychology, 27(2), 236-248. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.27.2.236.
[28]
Jablon, J. R., & Wilkinson, M. (2006).Using Engagement Strategies to Facilitate Children’s Learning and Success. Retrieved November 14, 2014 from https://www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/200603/JablonBTJ.pdf.
[29]
Japanese Education. (n.d.). Hard work, diligence, and perseverance. Retrieved from http://members.tripod.com/h_javora/jed1.htm.
[30]
Junkere, B. (2009). How to teach children diligence. Retrieved from http://www.helium.com/items/1478894-teaching-diligence
[31]
Klein, P. D. (1997). Multiplying the problems of intelligence by eight: a critique of Gardner’s Theory. Canadian Journal of Education, 22(4), 377-394.
[32]
Kpolovie, P. J. (2010). Advanced Research Methods. Owerri, Nigeria: Springfield Publishers.
[33]
Langer, J. A. (1986a). Children Reading and Writing: Structures and Strategies. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
[34]
Langer, J. A. (1986b). Learning through writing: Study skills in the content areas. Journal of Reading, 29, 400-406.
[35]
Li, C. (2008). How to teach your preschool child the alphabet and reading. Retrieved from http://www.helium.com/items/784542-how-to-teach-your-preschool-child-the-alphabet-and-reading
[36]
Li, J. (2005). Mind or Virtue: Western and Chinese beliefs about learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(4), 190-194.
[37]
Lily, A. (n.d.). Successful homeschooling, it depends on you, give it time and diligence. Retrieved from http://EzineArticles.com/2019482
[38]
Lutz, S., & Huitt, W. (2003). Information processing and memory: Theory and applications. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/infoproc.pdf
[39]
Lyon, G. R. (1995). Towards a definition of dyslexia. Ann Dyslexia, 45, 3-27.
[40]
Mae, J. (2010). How to teach children diligence. Retrieved from http://www.helium.com/items/1920861-diligence-teaching-childrenteaching-stategies-parenting
[41]
Mangels, J. A., Butterfield, B., Lamb, J., Good, C., & Dweck, C. S. (2006). Why do beliefs about intelligence influence learning success? A social cognitive neuroscience model. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 1(2), 75-86. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsl013
[42]
McGrew, K. S., & Evans, J. (2004). Expectations for students with cognitive disabilities: Is the cup half empty or half full? Can the cup flow over? (Synthesis Report 55). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes. Retrieved from http://education.umn.edu/NCEO/OnlinePubs/Synthesis55.html
[43]
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Retrieved November 11, 2014 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html.
[44]
Meyer, M. (2000). The ability-achievement discrepancy: does it contribute to an understanding of learning disabilities. Educational Psychology Review, 12(3), 315-37.
[45]
Mudzielwana, N. P. (2012). Causal Factors of Low Reading Standards of the Foundation Phase Learners in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province of South Africa. Journal of Research in Education and Society, 3(1), 117-127.
[46]
National Literacy Trust (2012). Boys’ Reading Commission. Retrieved May 26, 2014 from http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/assets/0001/4056/Boys_Commission_Report.pdf.
[47]
Neale, M. D. (1991). Neale analysis of reading ability revised – manual. Hawthorn, Victoria: Australian Council for Education Research.
[48]
Neale, M. D. (1999). Neale analysis of reading ability (3rd ed.). Hawthorn, Victoria: ACER Press.
[49]
Neisser, U. (1995). Selected Portions of Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/iku.html
[50]
Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Boucard, T. J., Boykin, A. W., et al (1996). Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns. American Psychologist, 51(2), 77-101.
[51]
NEPS. (2012). Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers: A Good Practice Guide for Teachers. Retrieved from http://www.education.ie/en/Education-Staff/Information/NEPS-Literacy-Resource/neps_literacy_good_practice_guide.pdf
[52]
Oakley, G., & Barratt-Pugh, C. (2007). The Identification of Assessment Resources to Support Children Learning to Read in the Early Years of School: Literature Review. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University. Retrieved from http://www.decd.sa.gov.au/farnorthandaboriginallands/files/links/191207_Assessmt_Final_lite.pdf
[53]
Ololube, N. P., Briggs, T., Kpolovie, P. J., & Ezindu, S. A. U. (2010). Communicative Approach as a Tool for Relating Reading and Writing Skills in Early Childhood Education. Discourse and Communication for Sustainable Education, 1(2), 34-54.
[54]
Ololube, N. P., Kpolovie, P. J., & Egbezor, D. E. (2009). Education Policy Analysis: The Need to Accelerate and Redesign Early Childhood Education Preparation Programs. International Journal of Education, Economics and Development, 1(2), 118-141. doi: 10.1504/IJEED.2009.029304
[55]
Ozenreider, A. (n.d.). Developing written language skills in your preschooler. Retrieved from http://www.sixtysecondparent.com/_webapp_292070/Developing_written_language_skills_in_your_preschooler.
[56]
Paris, S. C., & Hoffman, J. V. (2004). Reading assessments in kindergarten through first grade: Findings from the Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement. The Elementary School Journal, 105(2), 199-217.
[57]
Perfetti, C. (2007). Reading Ability: Lexical Quality of Comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 11(4), 357-383.
[58]
Save the Children (2002). Schools for All: Including disabled children in education. Retrieved May 26, 2014 from http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/schools_for_all.pdf.
[59]
Scarborough, H. S., & Parker, J. D. (2003). Matthew effects in children with learning disabilities: Development of reading, IQ, and psychosocial problems from grade 2 to grade 8. Annals Dyslexia, 53, 47-71.
[60]
Scruton, H., & McNamara, J. (2014). Using Motivational Tactics to Support Children with Reading Disabilities. International Journal of Elementary Education, 3(4), 92-97. doi: 10.11648/j.ijeedu.20140304.11.
[61]
Sean, S. (2014). Providing Support for Your Dyslexic Child. Retrieved from https://learningbreakthrough.com/learning-breakthrough-blog/providing-support-dyslexic-child/
[62]
Seigile, M. (n.d.). Just For Youth... Is Intelligence the Most Important Factor for Success? Retrieved March 20, 2014 from http://www.ucg.org/christian-living/just-youth-intelligence-most-important-factor-success/.
[63]
Shead, M. (2010). Your Intelligence – Reading, Writing & Arithmetic. Retrieved from http://www.productivity501.com/intelligence-reading-writing-arithmetic/6895/
[64]
Siegel, L. S. (2003). IQ-discrepancy definitions and the diagnosis of LD: introduction to special issue. Journal of Learning Disability, 36(1), 2-3.
[65]
Song, M., & Young, T. (2008). Reading: policy, politics and processes. Charlotte, NC. Information Age Publishing.
[66]
Stage, S. A., Abbott, R. D., Jenkins, J. R., & Berninger, V. M. (2003). Predicting response to early reading intervention from verbal IQ, reading related language abilities, attention ratings, and verbal IQ-word reading discrepancy: Failure to validate discrepancy method. Journal of Learn Disability, 36(1), 24-33.
[67]
Stenhouse, G. (2009). Learning difficulties in children. Retrieved November 11, 2014 from http://www.kidzgrow.com.my/forum/viewthread.php?tid=32.
[68]
Sternberg, R. J. (1983). How much Gall is too much gall? Review of frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. Contemporary Education Review, 2(3), 215-224
[69]
Sternberg, R. J. (1991). Death, taxes, and bad intelligence tests. Intelligence, 15(3), 257-270.
[70]
Tough, P. (2011). What if the Secret to Success Is Failure? November 14, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/18/magazine/what-if-the-secret-to-success-is-failure.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.
[71]
Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., & Lyon, G. R. (2000). Differentiating between difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: More evidence against the IQ-achievement discrepancy definition of reading disability. Journal of Learning Disability, 33(3), 223-38.
[72]
Walker, S. (2012). 5 Reasons Why Your Students Should Write Every Day. Retrieved from http://www.scilearn.com/blog/5-reasons-students-should-write-every-day.php
[73]
Williams, B., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2008). Individual Differences, Intelligence, and Behavior Analysis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis Behavior, 90(2), 219-231. doi: 10.1901/jeab.2008.90-219
[74]
Yamashita, J. (2013). Effects of extensive reading on reading attitudes in a foreign language. Reading in a Foreign Language, 25(2), 248-263.
[75]
Younger, M., Warrington, M., Gray, J., Rudduck, J., McLellan, R., Bearne, E., Kershner, R., & Bricheno, P. (2005). Raising Boys’ Achievement. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Faculty of Education
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186