Battling to Become English-Literate in Semi-Pastoral Society of Eastern Ethiopia
International Journal of Elementary Education
Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages: 38-44
Received: Mar. 30, 2019; Accepted: May 23, 2019; Published: Jun. 10, 2019
Views 185      Downloads 38
Authors
Dereje Birbirso, School of Foreign Language & Journalism, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia
Tesfaye Gerba, School of Foreign Language & Journalism, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia
Roba Wodessa, School of Foreign Language & Journalism, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
This study explored the condition of being a child and a primary school student in Semi-Pastoral Society of Eastern Ethiopia. The study was instigated by the widespread complaints in the aftermath of Millennium Development Goal two (MDG2) that in eastern Ethiopia of (semi-) pastoralist community, children are left far behind with not only the opportunity to literacy. The aim of this study was to assess the existing EFL primary school literacy achievements, success and challenges in the Dire Dawa Town suburbs of Oromo and Somali semi-pastoralist communities. Adopting an ethnographic participant observation approach, five primary schools were selected based on convenience or accessibility. Totally, twenty-five active primary schools Grade 4 children and 14 dropouts were sampled based on availability sampling technique from the five schools. A Basic Vocabulary Assessment Battery (BVAB) was designed as a primary data collection tool. Besides, School Observation and Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were employed. The BVAB results of those actively schooling indicate, in contrast to our original hypothesis, fair level of English literacy. However, the FDG data obtained from the dropouts confirmed our hypothesis that abject poverty and the fragility of implementing the policy of children’s rights to education in their mother tongues are stumbling blocks to literacy as well as opportunity to schooling. Important policy implications are offered.
Keywords
Ethiopia, Language Policy, Primary School Education, English Literacy, Semi-Pastoral Society
To cite this article
Dereje Birbirso, Tesfaye Gerba, Roba Wodessa, Battling to Become English-Literate in Semi-Pastoral Society of Eastern Ethiopia, International Journal of Elementary Education. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2019, pp. 38-44. doi: 10.11648/j.ijeedu.20190802.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Abbebe, N. & M. L. Bender (1984). The Ethiopian Language Academy: 1943-1974 Source: Northeast African Studies, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 1-7 (1), 15-35 (2002).
[2]
MDG Africa Steering Group (2008). Achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Africa
[3]
USAID Ethiopia (2010). Ethiopia Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) Data Analytic Report: Language and Early Learning, Addis Ababa.
[4]
UNESCO (2013). UNESCO policy guidelines for mobile learning. Paris: UNESCO. Available at: http://une
[5]
USID (2016). Landscape Report on Early Grade Literacy
[6]
UNESCO (2001). Handbook, Adult Learning Materials Development as Community Level, UNESCO Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (Thailand)
[7]
Midega, Milkessa (2017). Ethiopian Federalism and the Ethnic Politics of Divided Cities: Consociationalism without Competitive Multiparty Politics in Dire Dawa. Ethnopolitics, Vol. 16, No. 3, 279–294.
[8]
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. (1995). The constitution of the federal democratic republic of Ethiopia. Federal NegaritGazeta, Proclamation No.1/1995. Addis Ababa
[9]
Dire Dawa Administrative Council Proclamation No.1/2008. Dire Negarit Gazeta.
[10]
Jeilu Oumer. (2009). The challenges of free primary education in Ethiopia. UNESCO.
[11]
Brown, R., Waring, R., and Donkaewbua, S. (2008). Incidental vocabulary acquisition from reading, reading-while-listening, and listening to stories.
[12]
Meara, P., and Jones, G. Eurocentres (1990). Vocabulary Size Test, 10KA (Zurich: Eurocentres). TESL Canadian Journal, 3 (1), 69-79.
[13]
Moir, J., and Nation, P. (2002). Learners’ use of strategies for effective vocabulary learning. Prospect, 17 Paris: International Institute of Educational Planning.
[14]
Saverio K. & Caroline, D. (2009). Mobile pastoralists and education: Strategic options. London UK: International Institute for Environment and Development.
[15]
Schmitt, N., Wun-Ching, J., and Garras, J (2011). The word associates’ format: Validation evidence. Language Testing, 28 (1), 105-126.
[16]
Dereje H. M. (2005). A study on Primary Education Provision for the Children of Pastoral Nomads in Ethiopia: Access and alternative, the case of Somali Region.
[17]
UNESCO (2007). Education for all global monitoring report 2008: Education for all by 2015-Will we make it? Paris: UNESCO.
[18]
Schmitt, N (1998). Tracking the incidental acquisition of second language vocabulary: A longitudinal study Language Learning, 48 (2), 281-317.
[19]
UNESCO (2007). Education for all global monitoring report 2008: Education for all by 2015-Will we make it? Paris: UNESCO.
[20]
Alemu, D. & T. Abebayehu. (2011). “Comparative Analysis of Instructional Language Issues in Ethiopia and the United States.” Creative Education 2 (4): 402–407.
[21]
Wolff, E. (2001). “Background and History: Language Politics and Planning in Africa.” In Optimising Learning, Education and Publishing in Africa: The Language Factor, edited by A. Ouane and C. Glanz, 47–104. Hamburg and Tunis: UIL and ADEA.
[22]
Tuso, H. (1982). Minority Education In Ethiopia, Africa: Rivista trimestrale di studi e documentazione dell'Istituto italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente, Anno 37, No. 3, pp. 270-293.
[23]
Abbebe, N. & M. L. Bender (1984). The Ethiopian Language Academy: 1943-1974 Source: Northeast African Studies, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 1-7 (1), 15-35 (2002).
[24]
Freire, P., & Macedo, D. (1987). Literacy: Reading the Word and the World. South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey.
[25]
CSA. (2007.) POPULATION and HOUSING CENSUS OF ETHIOPIA. Available at: 2007. Census Report. pdf
[26]
FDRE (1994). Education and training policy. Addis Ababa: St. George Printing Press.
[27]
Tovar. R. (2017). The importance of vocabulary knowledge in the production of written texts: a case study on EFL language learners, Revista Tecnológica ESPOL – RTE, Vol. 30, N. 3, 89-105.
[28]
Transitional Government of Ethiopia, Education and Training Policy, Transitional Government of Ethiopia, (1994).
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186