Integrating Graphic Organizers in Lesson Packages and Its Effect to Students’ Levels of Conceptual Understanding
International Journal of Secondary Education
Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages: 89-100
Received: Jul. 25, 2019; Accepted: Aug. 13, 2019; Published: Oct. 10, 2019
Views 525      Downloads 194
Ranulfo Friolo Cala, Biology Unit, Philippine Science High School-Central Visayas Campus, Cebu, Philippines
Article Tools
Follow on us
The study investigated the effect of graphic organizers on students’ levels of conceptual understanding, and the effect of students’ cognitive level on conceptual understanding. The control group (n=40) received a conventional classroom instruction while the experimental group (n=38) received an innovative classroom instruction, using graphic organizers. A mixed-method research design was employed. Pre-test, post-test, and Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning were utilized to compare quantitative results within and between groups. Qualitative data were gathered using structured interview schedule to further corroborate the quantitative findings. In comparison, results show that the experimental group significantly outperformed control group based on post-test results: remembering (p=0.001), analysis (p=0.001) and thinking beyond (p=0.013), except for application (p=0.906) which is not statistically significant. Furthermore, the correlation results show that, overall, there are no strong and significant correlations between students’ concrete operational and transitional cognitive levels, and levels of conceptual understanding in both pre-test and post-test results for control and experimental groups. Since students’ cognitive levels have no significant effect in enhancing students’ conceptual understanding, therefore, the outperformance of the experimental group was due to the use of graphic organizers integrated in lesson packages.
Cognitive Levels, Graphic Organizers, Levels of Conceptual Understanding
To cite this article
Ranulfo Friolo Cala, Integrating Graphic Organizers in Lesson Packages and Its Effect to Students’ Levels of Conceptual Understanding, International Journal of Secondary Education. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2019, pp. 89-100. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsedu.20190704.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
An, S. (2013). Schema Theory in Reading. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3 (1), 130-134.
Austin Independent School District REACH. (2011). REACH Student Learning Objective (SLO) Manual. Retrieved from
Ayverdi, L., Nakiboglu, C., & Oz Aydin, S. (2014). Usage of Graphic Organizers in Science and Technology Lessons. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 4264-4269.
Bao, L., Cai, T., Koenig, K., Fang, K., Han, J., Wang, J.,... Wu, N. (2009). Supporting Online Material for Learning and Scientific Reasoning. Science, 323, 586-587.
Cannon, H. M. & Feinstein, A. H. (2005). Bloom Beyond Bloom: Using the Revised Taxonomy to Develop Experiential Learning Strategies. Development in Business Simulations and Experiential Learning, 32, 348-356.
Clark, J. M., & Paivio, A. (1991). Dual Coding Theory and Education. Educational Psychology Review, 3 (3), 149-210.
Condidorio, K. (2010). The Usefulness of Graphic Organizers in Enhancing Science Learning. Education Masters. Paper 111
Cunningham, D. J. (1991). Assessing constructions and constructing assessments: A dialogue. Educational Technology, 31 (5), 13-17.
Dimitrios, B., Labros, S., Nikolaos, K., Maria, K. & Athanasios, K. (2013). Traditional Teaching Methods vs. Teaching through the Application of Information and Communication Technologies in the Accounting Field: Quo Vadis? European Scientific Journal, 9 (28), 73-101.
D, P. S., & Rajan, P. (2013). Using Graphic Organizers to Improve Reading Comprehension Skills for the Middle School ESL Students. English Language Teaching, 6 (2), 155-170.
Dye, G. A. (2000). Graphic Organizers to the Rescue! Teaching Exceptional Children, 32 (3), 72-76.
Ertmer, P. A. & Newby, T. J. (2013). Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features From an Instructional Design Perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 26 (2), 43-71.
Evagorou, M., Erduran, S., & Mäntylä, T. (2015). The role of visual representations in scientific practices: from conceptual understanding and knowledge generation to ‘seeing’ how science works. International Journal of STEM Education, 2 (1), 1-13.
Goss, P. A. (2009). The influence of graphic organizers on students‟ ability to summarize and comprehend science content regarding the earth‟s changing surface. 1-110. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
Guastello, E., Beasley, T., & Sinatra, R. C. (2000). Concept Mapping Effects on Science Content Comprehension of Low-Achieving Inner-City Seventh Graders [Abstract]. Remedial and Special Education, 21 (6), 356-364.
Gutierrez, R., & Ikeda, H. (2009, November). Response pattern analysis on the burning candle experiment: TIMSS-based study. Paper presented at the Third International Conference on Science and Mathematics Education (CoSMEd) 2009 Penang, Malaysia.
Hailikari, T., Katajavuori, N., & Lindblom-Ylanne, S. (2008). The Relevance of Prior Knowledge in Learning and Instructional Design. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 72 (5), 1-8.
Jessen, F., Heun, R., Erb, M., Granath, D., Klose, U., Papassotiropoulos, A., & Grodd, W. (2000). The Concreteness Effect: Evidence for Dual Coding and Context Availability. Brain and Language, 74 (1), 103-112.
Johnson, D. R. (2011). A Quantitative Study of Teacher Perceptions of Professional Learning Communities' Context, Process, and Content. Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs). 15.
Locaylocay, J. R. (2002). Changes in college students’ conceptions of chemical equilibrium. PhD thesis, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 2002. Published as book: Centre for International Cooperation, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, ISBN 90-9019266-2.
Lusk, K. (2014). Teaching High School Students Scientific Concepts Using Graphic Organizers. Theses, Dissertations and Capstones. Paper 895.
Mann, M. L. (2014). The Effectiveness of Graphic Organizers on the Comprehension of Social Studies Content by Students with Disabilities. Theses, Dissertations and Capstones. Paper 890.
Martin, M. O., Mullis, I. V., Gonzalez, E. J., & Chrostowski, S. J. (2004). TIMSS 2003 International Science Repor. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College.
Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement.
Moore, J. C. (2012). Transitional to Formal Operational: Using Authentic Research Experiences to Get Non-Science Students to Think More Like Scientists. European J of Physics Education, 1-2.
Moore, J. C., & Rubbo, L. J. (2012). Scientific reasoning abilities of nonscience majors in physics-based courses. Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research, 8 (1), 010106-1-010106-8.
Owolabi, J., & Adaramati, T. (2015). Effects of Graphic Organiser on Students’ Achievement in Algebraic Word Problems. Journal of Education and Practice, 6 (5), 39-44.
Piri Ardakani, M., & Lashkarian, A. (2015). Using Mind Mapping Strategy to Improve Reading Comprehension Ability to Intermediate Iranian Student. Science Journal, 36 (3), 1077-1095.
Rumsey, D. J. (2016). Statistics for Dummies (2nd ed.). New York, United States: John Wiley & Sons.
Slavin, R. E. (1991). Synthesis of research on cooperative learning. Educational Leadership, 48, 71-82.
Uba, E., Oteikwu, E. A., Onwuka, E., & Eniayekan, E. A. (2017). A Research-Based Evidence of the Effect of Graphic Organizers on the Understanding of Prose Fiction in ESL Classroom. SAGE Open, 7 (2), 1-9.
Wandberg, R., & Rohwer, J. (2010). Teaching Health Education in Language Diverse Classrooms. Canada: Jones and Bartlett.
Wills, S., & Ellis, E. (2008). The Theoretical and Empirical Basis for Graphic Organizer Instruction. 1-21. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
Xiao, Y., Han, J., Koenig K., Xiong, J., & Bao, L. (2018). Multilevel Rasch modeling of two-tier multiple choice test: A case study using Lawson’s classroom test of scientific reasoning. Physical Review Physics Education Research, 14 (2), 020104-1 – 020104-18.
Department of Education (2016, August). K to 12 Science Curriculum Guide [PDF].
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186