The Effects of Gender and Genre on Language Learners’ Reading Comprehension Ability
Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2014, Pages: 266-271
Received: Aug. 12, 2014;
Accepted: Aug. 21, 2014;
Published: Aug. 30, 2014
Views 3361 Downloads 453
Mohammad Salehi, Languages and Linguistics Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Zahra Lari, Languages and Linguistics Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Atefeh Rezanejad, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
Reading is one of the most important skills that foreign language learners should know, and is affected by various non linguistic factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of gender and genre on text comprehension. To this end, three texts from different genres were selected and administered to thirty male and female EFL learners who were at intermediate level. The selected genres were labels and signs, informal letter and newspaper. After administering the reading tests, the participants’ mean scores were computed and the results showed that altogether females were better text comprehenders than males. To see the effect of gender on text comprehension a one way ANOVA was run and it was found that both male and female participants performed differently on various genres. Moreover, to investigate the effect of both gender and genre on participants’ text comprehension a two-way ANOVA was employed and the result showed they did not have any significant effect on text comprehension. The participants performed better on familiar genres regardless of their gender. These results have some implications for teachers. First, they should not rely on just text difficulty for choosing texts for reading courses. Next, they should provide male students with more practice in reading comprehension.
The Effects of Gender and Genre on Language Learners’ Reading Comprehension Ability, Education Journal.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2014, pp. 266-271.
Anderson, R. C., & Pearson, P. D. (1984). A schema-theoretic view of reading comprehension. In P. D. Pearson (Ed.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 255-291). New York: Longman.
Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering. London: Cambridge University Press. Bernhardt, E. B. (1984). Toward an information processing perspective in foreign language reading. Modern Language Journal, 68, 322-331.
Brantmeier, C. (2003). Beyond linguistics knowledge: Individual differences in second language reading. Foreign Language Annals, 36(1), 33-43.
Brantmeier C. (2003). Does gender make a difference? Passage Content and Comprehension in Second Language Reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 15(1), 1-23.
Carrell, P. L. (1991). Second language reading: Reading ability or language proficiency? Applied Linguistics, 12(2), 159-179.
Droop, M., & Verhoeven, L. (1998). Background knowledge, linguistics complexity, and second language reading comprehension. Journal of Literacy Research, 30(2), 253-271.
Hammadou, J. (1991). Interrelationships among prior knowledge, inference, and language proficiency in foreign language reading. Modern Language Journal, 75(1), 27-38.
Hudson, T. (1988). The effects of induced schemata on the "short circuit" in L2 reading: Non decoding factors in L2 reading performance. In P. L. Carrell, J. Devine & D. E. Eskey (Eds.), Interactive approaches to second language reading. (pp. 183-205). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Johnson, P. (1981). Effects on reading comprehension of language complexity and cultural background of a text. TESOL Quarterly, 15(2), 169-181.
Johnston, P. H. (1984). Prior knowledge and reading comprehension test bias. Reading. Research Quarterly, 19 (3), 219-239.
Keshavarz, M., & Ashtarian, S. (2008). The relationship between Iranian EFL learn Gender ‘and reading comprehension of three different types of text. IJAL, 11(1), 97-113.
Kim, J. Y., & Anderson, T. (2011). Reading across the curriculum: a framework for improving the reading abilities and habits of college students. Journal of College Literacy & Learning, 37, 29-40.
Koda, K. (2005). Insights into second language reading: A cross-linguistic approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Landry, K. (2002). Schemata in second language reading. The Reading Matrix, Vol.2,No.3. Retrieved July 2012 from:www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/article/thoeries-reading
Levin, M. G., & Haus, G. J. (1985). The effect of background knowledge on the reading comprehension of second language learners. Foreign Language Annals, 18(5), 391-397.
Li C.H. (2012). The Functions Of Cultural Schemata In The Chinese Reading Comprehension and Reading Time of College Students in Taiwan. Journal of International Education Research, 8(2).
Lin, B. (2006). Genre-based teaching and Vygotskian principles in EFL: The case of a University writing course. Asian EFL Journal, 8 (3), 267-280.
Malik, A. A. (1990). A psycholinguistics analysis of the reading behavior of EFL proficient readers using culturally familiar and culturally no familiar expository texts. American Educational Research Journal, 27, 205-223.
Peretz, A. S., & Shoham, M. (1990). Testing reading comprehension in LSP: Does topic familiarity affect assessed difficulty and actual performance? Reading in a Foreign Language, 7(3), 447-445.
Psybox Ltd (2002). Schema [Electronic version] Retrieved 13 November, 2009, from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/theories-reading
Recht, D. R., & Leslie, L. (1988). Effect of prior knowledge on good and poor readers' memory of text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(1), 16-20.
Rumelhart, D. E., & Ortony, A. (1977). The representation of knowledge in memory. In R. C. Anderson, R. J. Spiro & W. E. Montague (Eds.), Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ.: Erlbaum.
Schlesinger, I. M. (1968). Sentence structure and the reading process. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.
Shahmohammadi, N. (2011). The Effect of Gender Base Materials on Reading Comprehension. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 1(2).
Wolf, D. F. (1993). A comparison of assessment tasks used to measure FL reading comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 77(iv), 473–489.
Xiao-hui L., Jun W., & Wei-hua W. (2007). Analysis of schema theory and its influence on reading. US-China Foreign Language, 5(11).
Zhang X. (2008). The Effects of Formal Schema on Reading Comprehension: An Experiment with Chinese EFL Readers. Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing, 13(2).