Fundamentals and Limits of the Inclusive Culture and Inclusive Practise
Education Journal
Volume 8, Issue 6, November 2019, Pages: 320-326
Received: Jun. 28, 2019; Accepted: Jul. 24, 2019; Published: Nov. 25, 2019
Views 533      Downloads 130
Christian Wevelsiep, Department of Sociology, University of Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany
Article Tools
Follow on us
Inclusion is an ideal: Belonging to the educations system is not a question. The children with disabilities are all part of a group, of a class, a school and of a community. This idea is great, but it needs to be grounded. Before describing in concrete terms which possibilities open up inclusive practices, the negative must be taken in account. The negative is intrusive: for the claim - to "integrate" everyone - can fail at certain moments. The idea of promoting and not "selecting" ends with a disturbing insight that affects a certain group: children with emotional and social developmental disorders. An interesting but difficult group, if we allow ourselves a few cliché-like exaggerations. A group that will be described in the following. The following article therefore covers a very wide range of objects. First, it aims to recall the foundations of inclusive theory; in this respect, it primarily aims at social-theoretical idealizations for which there is no exact equivalent in reality. First of all, abstract norms and values are at stake, ideals that always receive a resonance in pedagogical reality. But this resonance is not a measurable effect that can be exactly reproduced with the means of empirical social research. On the other hand it is a question of a group of people who may not be able to correspond to the described ideal: Children and adolescents with social and emotional developmental disorders. This group is trivially a factual component of a larger social group. But to what extent their integration and promotion is feasible within an inclusive framework would be questionable. Accordingly, the methodology must remain related to phenomenological perspectives. For it is not just a question of asking who may be a victim of exclusion, who is successfully integrated into a system and who is excluded. Rather, it is about the social-theoretical consequences of an irreversible tension: between a reality in which educational subjects do not correspond to the expectations, in which children are "sorted" and "classified" - and a theory that would have to draw conclusions from this situation. The aim of the following considerations would therefore be to start from the perspective of those subjects that we describe as inferior and marginalized, and to what extent observing the preconditions of this group should be a constitutive (and hitherto overlooked) component of the theory of inclusion.
Inclusion, Power, History, Exclusion, Disability
To cite this article
Christian Wevelsiep, Fundamentals and Limits of the Inclusive Culture and Inclusive Practise, Education Journal. Vol. 8, No. 6, 2019, pp. 320-326. doi: 10.11648/
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Anne Waldschmidt: Rethinking disability. Cultural Studies Perspectives of Disability Studies. In: Ders. (Ed.): Cultural Studies Perspectives of Disability Studies. Tagungsdokumentation, Kassel 2003, p. 15- 20; Prengel, A.: Equality, Heterogeneity and Hierarchy in Initial Lessons and Beyond. In: Hinz, Andreas/Geiling, Ute (Hg): Integration Pedagogy in Discourse - On the Way to Inclusive Pedagogy. Bad Heilbrunn 2005, p. 15-34.
Wember, F. B.: Inclusion challenge: A preventive-oriented model of school learning and four central conditions of inclusive teaching development. In: Zeitschrift für Heilpädagogik (ZfH) 10, 2013, pp. 380-388; Werning, R.: Das sozial auffällige Kind. Wiesbaden 1990; Ders: Remarks on a didactics of joint teaching. In: ZfH 11, 1996, pp. 463-470; Ders. (1998): Constructivism. A suggestion for pedagogy? Ders. (1998): Constructivism. A suggestion for pedagogy? In: Pädagogik, Issue 7-8, S. 39-41; Ders: Inclusion between innovation and excessive demands. In: Zeitschrift für Heilpädagogik 8, 2010, pp. 284-292.
Wocken, H.: Performance, intelligence and social status of pupils with learning disabilities. Comparative study at special schools in Hamburg. In: Zeitschrift für Heilpädagogik 51, 2000, p. 492-503; Wocken, H.: An impossible essay on the therapy of an ill institution, in Journal for inclusion - Zeitschrift für, 2, 2013.
Willmann, M.: Increasing the educational competences of teachers through special educational consultation. In: Journal for Curative Education 6, 2007, p. 214-221; Wimmer, M.: Decay of the general - return of the singular. Pedagogical professionalism and the value of knowledge. In: Combe, A./Helsper, W.(Ed.): Pedagogical Professionalism. Frankfurt a, M. 1996, S. 404-447; Wolf, C./v. Dick, R.: If otherwise does not mean worse. The appreciation of diversity promotes the equivalence of the group. In: Heitmeyer, W. (Hg.): Deutsche Zustände. Folge 6. Frankfurt a. M. 2008, p. 137-154; Wustmann, C.: The new focus of resilience research. How children cope with life stress. In: Zeitschrift für Pädagogik 51, 2005, p. 192-208; Tröster, H.: Chances of early recognition of aggressive-dissocial behaviour problems in the transition from kindergarten to school. In: Zeitschrift für Heilpädagogik 9, 2011; pp. 337-345.
Hollstein-Brinkmann, H.: Social work and general systems theory. Freiburg 1993.
Störmer, N.: “You are disturbing”. Challenging behaviour and its interpretation as a behavioural disorder. Berlin: Frank and Timme 2013.
Fegert, J. M.: Quality - in every respect. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of 17. 11. 2012, p. 8.
Götz, B.: The experience that it's not as it seems. About the difficulties of treating disadvantaged young people with respect. In: Baur, W., Mack, W. & Schroeder, J. (Ed.): Education from the bottom up. Growing up in difficult life situations - provocations for pedagogy. Bad Heilbrunn/Obb., 2004, pp. 173-205.
Thomas Rentsch: The Constitution of Morality. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp 1999; Häußler, M.: Skepticism as an attitude of curative education. Reflections on the professional ethics of curative education. Bad Heilbrunn 2000.
Böttger, A.: Violence and Biography. A qualitative analysis of reconstructed life stories of 100 young people. Baden Baden 1998.
Amos, S. K.: Zero Tolerance at Public Schools in the USA - American Syndrome or Symptom for a New Determination of Social Membership and Educational Relations? In: Zeitschrift für Pädagogik 52, 2006, Issue 5, S. 717-713; Ayers, W./Dohrn, B./Ayers, R. (Ed.) (2001): Zero Tolerance. Resisting the Drive for Punishment in Our Schools. New York: New Press.
B. Ahrbeck: Dealing with disability. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer 2011; Inclusion - a critique. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer 2014, pp. 14; Hinz, A.: Heterogeneity in school. Integration - intercultural education - coeducation. Hamburg 1993; Ders.: From Integration to Inclusion. In: Journal for Curative Education, 9, 2002, pp. 354-361; Booth, T./ Ainscow, M.: Index for inclusion. Developing learning and participation in school. Bristol: Centre for studies on Inclusive Education 2002.
Jürgen Habermas: Facticity and Validity - Contributions to the Discourse Theory of Law and the Democratic Rule of Law. Frankfurt am Main Suhrkamp 1992.
Burkhard Liebsch: Exposed to each other - the other and the social. Elements of a topology of living together. 2 Vol., Freiburg/Mun ich: Karl Alber 2018.
Christian Wevelsiep. Inclusion - about a fulfilling figure in common life. Duisburg: Athena 2019.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186