Theoretical Model of Fundamental Entrepreneurial Competencies
Science Journal of Education
Volume 6, Issue 1, February 2018, Pages: 8-16
Received: Jan. 24, 2018; Accepted: Feb. 6, 2018; Published: Feb. 27, 2018
Views 630      Downloads 38
Käthe Schneider, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Jena, Germany
Carlos Albornoz, Facultad de Economía y Negocios, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago de Chile, Chile
Article Tools
Follow on us
Scientific interest in teaching entrepreneurial competencies has increased in the last few years. Thereby studies have examined above all personal tools, including skills and knowledge. However, besides focusing on educational programs for context-specific entrepreneurial competencies, it is essential to understand general competencies that enable an entrepreneur to master demands of varying challenges and contexts. Despite a growing body of literature in the field of entrepreneurial competencies, there still seems to be uncertainty regarding general entrepreneurial competencies. As a consequence of its research focus, the objective of this study is to understand general entrepreneurial competencies. To study these general competencies, new paradigms of human action should be brought into discussion. It is concluded that there is a relationship between the self and general entrepreneurial key behavior which has still not been covered by the literature. The overall goal of this study is thus to propose a model of general entrepreneurial competencies. An entrepreneurial competency model is proposed that gives insight about the key behavior of recognizing/producing and exploiting entrepreneurial opportunity which a successful entrepreneur should be able to demonstrate, and a person’s underlying characteristics. The underlying characteristics consist of the self and personal tools. The self comprises the self-as-subject, the ego as a meaning-making process, and the self-as-object, with dispositional traits, characteristic adaptations and identity. Personal tools include skills and knowledge. The structural model has been enriched with a developmental dimension as the entrepreneurial ego gradually becomes more complex and associated entrepreneurial behaviors and skills are increasingly practiced. Clarifying these theoretical links between the self and entrepreneurial core challenges may contribute to more effective design of fundamental entrepreneurship education programs and to addressing a wider range of educational issues, e.g., developing scientifically-supported educational models to increase the number of successful entrepreneurs.
Entrepreneurial Competencies, Self, Fundamental Competencies, Ego Development, Meaning Making, Entrepreneurial Identity
To cite this article
Käthe Schneider, Carlos Albornoz, Theoretical Model of Fundamental Entrepreneurial Competencies, Science Journal of Education. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2018, pp. 8-16. doi: 10.11648/j.sjedu.20180601.12
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Anderson, L. W. (Ed.), Krathwohl, D. R. (Ed.), Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., Raths, J., & Wittrock, M. C. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Longman.
Binder, T. (2014). Persönlichkeitsentwicklung und Beratungskompetenz: Ich-Entwicklung von Beratern und Führungskräften im Rahmenvon Weiterbildungsprogrammen. Dissertationsschrift zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktor der Philosophie (Dr. phil.). Freie Universität Berlin. Fachbereich Erziehungswissenschaften und Psychologie. Berlin.
Bird, B. (1995). Towards a theory of entrepreneurial competency. Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth, 2 (1), 51-72.
Boyatzis, R. E. (2008). Competencies in the 21st century, The Journal of Management Development, 27 (1), 5-12.
Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). The competent manager: A model for effective performance. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Brandstätter, H. Personality aspects of entrepreneurship: A look at five meta-analyses. Personality and individual differences, 2011, 51 (3), pp. 222-230.
Brush, C. G., de Bruin, A. & Welter, F. (2009). A gender-aware framework for women’s entrepreneurship. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1 (1), 8-24.
Bullough, A, de Luque, M. S., Abdelzaher, D. & Heim, W. (2015). Developing Women Leaders Through Entrepreneurship Education and Training. Academy of Management Perspectives, 29 (2), 250-270.
Davis, M. H., Hall, J. A. & Mayer, P. S. (2016). Developing new measure of entrepreneurial mindset: reliability, validity and implications for practitioners. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 68 (1), 21-48.
Day, D. V., Harrison, M. M., & Halpin, S. M. (2009). An integrative approach to leader development: Connecting adult development, identity, and expertise. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Eckhardt, Jonathan, T. & Shane, Scott, A. (2003). Opportunities and Entrepreneurship. Journal of Management 2003 29 (3) 333–349.
Göbel, S. (1998) Persönlichkeit, Strategien und Erfolg. In M. Frese (Ed.), Erfolgreiche Unternehmensgründer [Schriftenreihe: Wirtschaftspsychologie] (pp. 99-122). Göttingen: Verlag für Angewandte Psychologie.
Grichnik, D. (2006). Die Opportunity-Map der internationalen Entrepreneurshipforschung: Zum Kern des interdisziplinären Forschungsprogramms. Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft 76 (12), 1–31.
Helsing, D. & Howell, A. (2013). Understanding Leadership from the Inside out: Assessing Leadership Potential Using Constructive-Development Theory. Journal of Management Inquiry, 23 (2):186-204.
Hoang, H., & Gimeno, J. (2007). Becoming a Founder: How Founder Role-Identity Affects Entrepreneurial Transitions and Persistence in Founding. INSEAD Business School Research Paper, (2007/46).
Hy, X. H., & Loevinger, J. (1996). Measuring Ego Development. Second Edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
James, W. (1963). Psychology. Greenwich: Fawcett.
Kegan, R. (1994). In over our heads. The mental demands of modern life. Cambridge.
Kegan, R. (2000). What “Form” transforms? A Constructive-Developmental Approach to Transformative Learning. In J. Mezirow (Ed.), Learning as Transformation. Critical Perspectives on a Theory in Progress (pp. 35-69). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Kegan, R. (2001). Competencies as Working Epistemologies – Ways We Want Adults to Know. In: Rychen, D. S., Salganik, L. H. (Hg.): Defining and selecting key competencies. Seattle et al.: Hogrefe & Huber, S. 192-204.
Kirzner, I. (1973). Competition and entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Leutner, F., Ahmetoglu, G., Akhtar, R. & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2014). The relationship between the entrepreneurial personality and the Big Five personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 63, 58–63.
Lienig, Andreas (2017). Komplexität und Entrepreneurship. Komplexitätsforschung sowie Implikationen auf Entrepreneurship-Prozesse. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.
Loevinger, J. (1976). Ego Development: Conceptions and Theory. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Loevinger, J. (1997). Stages of personality development. In R. Hogan, J. Johnson & S. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook of Personality Psychology (pp. 199-208), San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Loevinger, J. (1998). History of the sentence completion test (SCT) for ego development. In J. Loevinger (Ed.), Technical foundations for measuring ego development. (pp. 1-10). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Makhbul, Z. M., & Hasun, F. M. (2011). Entrepreneurial Success: An Exploratory Study among Entrepreneurs. International Journal of Business and Management, 6 (1), 116-125.
Man, T. W., Lau, T. & Snape, E. (2008). Entrepreneurial competencies and the performance of small and medium enterprises: an investigation through a framework of competitiveness. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 21 (3), 257-276.
Martin, B. C., McNally, J. J., & Kay, M. J. (2013). Examining the formation of human capital in entrepreneurship: A meta-analysis of entrepreneurship education outcomes. Journal of Business Venturing, 28 (2), 211-224.
Maturana, H. (2000). The Nature of the Law of Nature. Systems Research and Behavioral Science (17), 459-468.
McAdams, D. P. (1998). Ego, trait, identity. In P. M. Westenberger, A. Blasi, & L. C. Cohn (Eds.), Personality development: Theoretical, empirical, and clinical investigations of Loevinger’s conception of ego development (pp. 27-38). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
McClelland, D. C. (1951), Personality, William Sloane Associates, New York, NY.
McLaughlin, E. B. (2012). An emotional business: The role of emotional intelligence in entrepreneurial success. Dissertation. University of Texas.
Mezirow, J. (2000). Learning to think like an adult. In J. Mezirow (Ed.), Learning as Transformation. Critical Perspectives on a Theory in Progress (pp. 1-33). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Mitchelmore, S. & Rowley, J. (2010). Entrepreneurial competencies: a literature review and development agenda. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 16 (2), pp. 92-111. doi: 10.1108/13552551011026995.
Novy, D. M. (1993). An investigation of the progressive sequence of ego development levels. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, 332-338.
Peris Bonet, F., Rueda Armengot, C. & Galindo Martín, M. Á. (2011). Entrepreneurial success and human resources. International Journal of Manpower, 32 (1), 68-80.
Piacentini, M. (2013). Women Entrepreneurs in the OECD: Key Evidence and Policy Challenges. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 147, OECD Publishing. doi: 10.1787/5k43bvtkmb8v-en.
Poudel, K. P. (2014). A discourse on entrepreneurial identity: three essays. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1757.
Rauch, A. & Frese, M. (2007). Let’s put the person back into entrepreneurship research: A meta-analysis on the relationship between business owners’ personality traits, business creation, and success. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16 (4), 353-383.
Schumpeter, J. (1934). Capitalism, socialism, and democracy. New York: Harper & Row.
Schumpeter, J. (1912/2006). Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, Berlin 1912; Neuausgabe hrgg. von Jochen Röpke und Olaf Stiller, Berlin 2006.
Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review 25 (1), 217-226.
Spencer, L. M. & Spencer, S. M. (1993). Competence at work. Models for superior performance. New York: Wiley & Sons.
Spinosa, Ch., Flores, F., & Dreyfus, H., (1999). Disclosing new worlds: Entrepreneurship, democratic action, and the cultivation of solidarity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Unger, J. M., Rauch, A., Frese, M. & Rosenbusch, N. (2009). Human capital and entrepreneurial success: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Business Venturing, 26, 341-358.
Venkataraman, S. (1997). The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research: An editor’s perspective. In J. Katz & R. Brockhaus (Eds.), Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth: Vol. 3, 119–138. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-688-8931