“Smoking Kills” vs. “Smoking Makes Restless”: Effectiveness of Different Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior
Psychology and Behavioral Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2013, Pages: 181-187
Received: Sep. 12, 2013; Published: Oct. 20, 2013
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Authors
Sabine Glock, LCMI Research Unit, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Simone Maria Ritter, Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Rutger Engels, Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Ap Dijksterhuis, Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Rick Bart van Baaren, Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Barbara Caterina Nadine Müller, Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; epartment of Psychology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany
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Abstract
Warning labels on cigarette packages rely on the negative health aspects of smoking. For smokers, however, smoking is related to positive as well as to negative outcomes. Positive smoking outcomes are shown to be crucial in activating smoking behaviour. Thus, this study compared current health warnings with warning labels contradicting positive outcomes. In a field study, 39 adult smokers were followed over a 5-day period to investigate the effect of the different types of warning labels on actual smoking behaviour. Our results provide evidence that smokers, who received warning labels contradicting positive outcome expectancies, smoked less than smokers, who received current health warnings. Thus, contradicting positive smoking outcomes on cigarette warning labels may be an effective tool in smoking prevention and intervention.
Keywords
Smoking, Cigarette Health Warnings, Outcome Expectancies, Cessation
To cite this article
Sabine Glock, Simone Maria Ritter, Rutger Engels, Ap Dijksterhuis, Rick Bart van Baaren, Barbara Caterina Nadine Müller, “Smoking Kills” vs. “Smoking Makes Restless”: Effectiveness of Different Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2013, pp. 181-187. doi: 10.11648/j.pbs.20130205.12
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