Achievement Goal and Discrete Emotions in Sport
Psychology and Behavioral Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 151-157
Received: Oct. 8, 2014; Accepted: Oct. 17, 2014; Published: Oct. 30, 2014
Views 3628      Downloads 204
Miltiadis Proios, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
Article Tools
Follow on us
Achievement goals and achievement emotions are elements developed during participation in sport activities. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between achievement goals and discrete emotions in sport and whether emotions vary with gender and type of sport. Males (n = 179), and females (n = 184) athletes were asked to participate in this study. Their age ranged from 18 to 23 years (M = 20.01, SD = 1.38). All participants were involved in the different type of sports: Individual (n = 207) and Teams (n = 156). Participants filled in two instruments, namely Task and Ego Orientation in Sports Questionnaire (TEOSQ; Duda & Nicholls, 1992) and Sport Emotion Questionnaire (SEQ; Jones et al., 2005). The results of this study established the conclusion that achievement goals are associated with discrete emotions, and that the shape of emotions is affected by gender and type of sport.
Goal Orientation, Emotions, Sport
To cite this article
Miltiadis Proios, Achievement Goal and Discrete Emotions in Sport, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2014, pp. 151-157. doi: 10.11648/j.pbs.20140305.12
Allen, M. S., Jones, M. V., & Sheffield, D. (2010). The influence of positive reflection on attributions, emotions, and self-efficacy. The Sport Psychologist, 24, 211-226. Retrieved from
Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: students learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 260-267. Retrieved from
Biddle, S. J. H., Wang, C. K. J., Kavussanu, M., & Spray, C. M. (2003). Correlates of achievement goal orientations in physical activity: a systematic review of research. European Journal of Sport Science, 3, 1-20. Retrieved from
Bortoli, L., Bertollo, M., & Robazza, C. (2009). Dispositional goal orientations, motivational climate, and psychobiosocial states in youth sport. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 18-24. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.01.042.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cooke, A., Kavussanu, M., McIntyre, D., & Ring, C. (2013). The effects of individual and team competitions on performance, emotions, and effort. Journal of Sport Exercise Psychology, 35, 132-143.
Daniels, L. M., Haynes, T. L., Stupnisky, R. H., Perry, R. P., Newall, N. E., & Pekrun, R. (2008). Individual differences in achievement goals: A longitudinal study of cognitive, emotional, and achievement outcomes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 584-608. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.08.002
Dewar, A. J., & Kavussanu, M. (2011). Achievement goals and emotions in golf: The mediating and moderating role of perceived performance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 525-532. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.05.005
Duda, J. L. (1992). Children’s achievement goals and beliefs about success in sport. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 62, 313-323.
Duda, J. L, & Nicholls, J. G. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 290-299. Retrieved from
Duda, J. L., Olson, L. K., & Templin, T. J. (1991). The relationship of task and ego orientations to the sportsmanship attitudes and the perceived legitimacy of injurious acts. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62, 79-87. Retrieved from
Duda, J. L, & Whitehead, J. (1998). Measurement of goal perspectives in the physical domain. In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement (pp. 21-48). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040–1048.
Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). Α social - cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256-273.
Elliot, A. J. (1997). Integrating “classic” and “contemporary” approaches to achievement motivation: A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. In P. Pintrich & M. Maehr (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 10, pp. 143–179). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Elliot, A.J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 169-189.
Elliot, A.J., & Church, M.A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 218-232.
Elliot, A.J., & Harachiewicz, J.M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 70, 461-475.
Gilovich, T., & Savitsky, K. (1999). The spotlight effect and the illusion of transparency. Egocentric assessments of how we are seen by others. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 165-168. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.00039
Hall, H. K., & Kerr, A. W. (1997). Motivational antecedents of precompetitive anxiety in youth sport. Sport Psychologist, 11, 24-42. Retrieved from
Haidt, J., Roller, S. H., & Dias, M. G. (1993). Affect, culture and morality, or Is it wrong to eat your dog? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 613-628.
Hanin, Y. L. (2000). Emotions in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Hanin, Y. L. (2007). Emotions in sport: current issues and perspectives. In G. Tenenbaum, & R. C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed.) (pp. 31-57) New York: Wiley & Sons.
Hanin, Y.L. (2010). Coping with anxiety in sport. In A.R. Nicholls (Ed.), Coping in sport: Theory, methods, and related constructs (pp. 159–175). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.
Hanton, S., Neil, R., & Mellalieu, S. D. (2008). Recent developments in competitive anxiety direction and competition stress research. International Review of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 1, 45–57.
Hodge, K., Allen, J. B., & Smellie, L. (2008). Motivation in masters sport: achievement and social goals. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9, 157-176. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.03.002.
Huang, C. (2011). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: A meta-analysis. Educational of Psychology Review, 23, 359-388. doi: 10.1007/s10648-011-9155-x
Jackson, S. A. (2000). Joy, fun, and flow state in sport. In Y.L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 135-156). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Jones, M. V. (2003). Controlling emotions in sport. The Sport Psychologist, 17, 471-486.
Jones, M. V., Lane, A. M., Bray, S. R., Uphill, M., & Catlin, J. (2005). Development and validation of the sport emotion questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 27, 407-431. Retrieved from
Judd, C. M., Kenny, D. A., & McClelland, G. H. (2001). Estimating and testing mediation and moderation in within-subject designs. Psychological Methods, 6, 115-134. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.44.1.78
Larson, R., & Richards, M. (1994). Family emotions: Do young adolescents and their parents experience the same states? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4(4), 567-583.
Larson, R., Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Graef, R. (1980). Mood variability and the psychosocial adjustment of adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 9(6), 469-490.
Lazarus, R. S. (2000). How emotions influence performance in competitive sports. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 229-252. Retrieved from
Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2002). Achievement goal theory and affect: An asymmetrical bidirectional model. Educational Psychologist, 37, 69-78.
Martin, K. A., & Hall, C. R. (1997). Situational and intrapersonal moderators of sport competition state anxiety. Journal of Sport Behavior, 20, 436-446.
Martinent, G., & Ferrand, C. (2009). A naturalistic qualitative study of the directional interpretation process of discrete emotions during high-stakes table tennis matches. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31, 318-336.
Newton, M., & Duda, J. L. (1995). Relations of goal orientations and expectations on multidimensional state anxiety. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 81, 1107-1112.
Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328–346.
Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Ntoumanis, N. (2001). A step-by-step guide to SPSS for sport and exercise studies. London and New York: Routledge.
Ntoumanis, N., & Biddle, S. J. H. (1999). Affect and achievement goals in physical activity: a meta-analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 9, 315-332, Retrieved fromΌ0905-7188.
Omli, J., & LaVoi, N. M. (2009). Background anger in youth sport: A perfect storm. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32(2), 242-260.
Pallant, J. (2010). SPSS Survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows (4th ed.). Maidenhead, Berkshire: Open University Press.
Papaioannou, A., & McDonald, A. I. (1993). Goal perspectives and purposes of physical education as perceived by Greek adolescents. Physical Education Review, 16, 41-48.
Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2006). Achievement goals and discrete achievement emotions: A theoretical model and prospective test. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 583-597. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.98.3.583
Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2009). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: Testing a model of their joint relations with academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(1), 115-135. doi:10.1037/a0013383
Proios, M. (2014). Relationship between discrete emotions and moral content judgment in sport settings. Ethics & Behavior, 24(5), 382-396. doi: 10.1080/10508422.2013.869746
Robazza, C., & Bortoli, L. (2007). Perceived impact of anger and anxiety on sporting performance in rugby players. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 8, 875–896.
Roberts, G. C., & Ommundsen, Y. (1996). Goal orientations and cognitive and affective correlates among team athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Sports Medicine, 6, 46–56.
Sage, L., & Kavussanu, M. (2007). Multiple goal orientations as predictors of moral behavior in youth soccer. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 417-437. Retrieved from
Scherer, K.R. (2000). Psychological models of emotion. In J. C. Borod (Ed.), The Neuropsychology of Emotion (pp. 137–162). New York: Oxford University Press.
Shweder, R. A., & Haidt, J. (2004). The cultural psychology of the emotions: Ancient and new. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 397–414). New York: Guilford Press.
Shweder, R. A., Mahapatra, M., & Miller, J. (1987). Culture and moral development. In J. Kagan & S. Lamb (Eds.), The emergence of morality in young children (pp. 1-83). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Simon, J. A., & Martens, R. (1979). Children’s anxiety in sport and non-sport evaluative activities. Journal of sport Psychology, 1, 160-169.
Tabashnick, L. S., & Fidell, B. G. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Tauer, J. M., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1999). Winning isn’t everything: Competition, achievement orientation, and intrinsic motivation. Journal of experimental social Psychology, 35, 209-238. doi:10.1006/jesp.1999.1383
Vealey, R. S., & Campbell, J. L. (1988). Achievement goals of adolescent figure skaters: impact on self-confidence, anxiety, and performance. Journal of Adolescent Research, 2, 227-243. doi:10.1177/074355488832009.
White, S. A., & Zellner, S. R. (1996). The relationship between goal orientation, beliefs about the causes of sport success, and trait anxiety among high school, intercollegiate, and recreational sport participants, The sport Psychologist, 19(1), 58-72.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186