Psychology and Behavioral Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 4, August 2016, Pages: 98-103
Received: Jul. 6, 2016;
Published: Jul. 7, 2016
Views 3904 Downloads 149
Scott L. Kemsley, Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Hawaii, USA
Chi Man Leung, Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Hawaii, USA
Suet Mui Ma, Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Hawaii, USA
Samantha C. Lam, Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Hawaii, USA
Boyd H. Timothy, Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Hawaii, USA
Ronald M. Miller, Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Hawaii, USA
Placebo effect has been applied in multiple aspects and the different components of placebo effect have already been studied in many different researches. Taste, which is one of the physiological effects, is a vital component of the placebo effect, and according to a Chinese idiom, “bitter taste medicines are more effective”, bitter tastes comes into play. However, bitter placebo does not work for everyone because of cultural difference and taste preferences. Results from factorial ANOVA showed there was a significant interaction effect of the taste of the drink and the type of personality on cognitive test performance when it came to speakers of different languages: native English and non-native English speaking participants. Also, bitter placebo only works for supertasters who have experience of the aversion of bitterness and agree that bitter drinks can keep themselves healthy. Hence, supertaster participants who feel gross after tasting the bitter drink will persuade themselves the benefit of the placebo. For future studies, it should modify the methods with a self-rated scale of the placebo taste and a different placebo substance with a universal flavor for improvement.
Scott L. Kemsley,
Chi Man Leung,
Suet Mui Ma,
Samantha C. Lam,
Boyd H. Timothy,
Ronald M. Miller,
The Effects of Bitter Placebos on Cognitive Tests, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences.
Vol. 5, No. 4,
2016, pp. 98-103.
Levine, J., Gordon, N., & Fields, H. (1978). The mechanism of placebo analgesia. The Lancet, 312 (8091), 654-657.
Shapiro, A. K. (1960). A contribution to a history of the placebo effect. Behavioral Science, 5 (2), 109-135.
Beecher, H. K. (1955). The powerful placebo. Journal of the American Medical Association, 159 (17), 1602-1606.
Cabot, R. C. (1906). The physician’s responsibility for the nostrum evil. Journal of the American Medical Association, 47 (13), 982-984.
Kienle, G. S., & Kiene, H. (1997). The powerful placebo effect: fact or fiction? Journal of clinical epidemiology, 50 (12), 1311-1318.
Ernst, E., & Resch, K. L. (1995). Concept of true and perceived placebo effects. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 311 (7004), 551.
Waber, R. L., Shiv, B., & Carmon, Z. (2008). Commercial features of placebo and therapeutic. Jama, 299 (9), 1016-7.
Lasagna, L., Laties, V. G., & Dohan, J. L. (1958). Further studies on the “pharmacology” of placebo administration. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 37 (4), 533.
Schindel, L. (1978). The placebo dilemma. European journal of clinical pharmacology, 13 (3), 231-235.
Jacobs, K. W., & Nordan, F. M. (1979). Classification of placebo drugs: effect of color. Perceptual and motor skills, 49 (2), 367-372.
Marchand, S., & Arsenault, P. (2002). Odors modulate pain perception: a gender-specific effect. Physiology & Behavior, 76 (2), 251-256.
Eccles, R. (2006). Mechanisms of the placebo effect of sweet cough syrups. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 152 (3), 340-348.
Huffman, M. A. (1997). Current evidence for self-medication in primates: a multidisciplinary perspective. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 104 (s 25), 171-200.
Mennella, J. A., Spector, A. C., Reed, D. R., & Coldwell, S. E. (2013). The bad taste of medicines: overview of basic research on bitter taste. Clinical therapeutics, 35 (8), 1225-1246.
Mennella, J. A., Pepino, M. Y., & Reed, D. R. (2005). Genetic and environmental determinants of bitter perception and sweet preferences. Pediatrics, 115 (2), e216-e222.
Hayes, J. E., & Keast, R. S. (2011). Two decades of supertasting: where do we stand? Physiology & Behavior, 104 (5), 1072-1074.
Wilkie, L. M. (2012). Individual Differences in Taste Perception and Bitterness Masking (Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University).
Duncan, J. W. & Laird, J. D. (1980). Positive and negative placebo effects as a function of differences in cues used self-perception. J. Pers. Sot. Psychof., 39, 1024-36.
Stevens, D. A. (1996). Individual differences in taste perception. Food Chemistry, 56 (3), 303-311.
James, W. (1884). II.—What is an emotion? Mind, 34, 188-205.
Bern, D. J. (1987). Self-perception: An alternative interpretation of cognitive dissonance. Psychol. Rev., 74, 183-200.
Drewnowski, A. (1997). Taste preferences and food intake. Annual Review of Nutrition, 17 (1), 237-253.
Gaudette, N. J., & Pickering, G. J. (2013). Modifying bitterness in functional food systems. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 53 (5), 464-481.
Weng, W., & Chen, J. (1996). The eastern perspective on functional foods based on traditional Chinese medicine. Nutrition Reviews, 54 (11), S11.
Moskowitz, H. W., Kumaraiah, V., Sharma, K. N., Jacobs, H. L., & Sharma, S. D. (1975). Cross-cultural differences in simple taste preferences. Science, 190 (4220), 1217-1218.
Bloch, P. H. (1995). Seeking the ideal form: product design and consumer response. Journal of Marketing, 59 (3), 16-29.
Tiu Wright, L., Nancarrow, C., & Kwok, P. M. (2001). Food taste preferences and cultural influences on consumption. British Food Journal, 103 (5), 348-357.
Sami, P. S., Toma, R. B., Nelson, D. B., & Frank, G. C. (1997). Effects of debittering on grapefruit juice acceptance. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 48 (4), 237-242.
Drewnowski, A., & Gomez-Carneros, C. (2000). Bitter taste, phytonutrients, and the consumer: a review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72 (6), 1424-1435.
Lesschaeve, I., & Noble, A. C. (2005). Polyphenols: factors influencing their sensory properties and their effects on food and beverage preferences. The American journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81 (1), 330S-335S.
Keskitalo, K., Tuorila, H., Spector, T. D., Cherkas, L. F., Knaapila, A., Silventoinen, K., & Perola, M. (2007). Same genetic components underlie different measures of sweet taste preference. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 86 (6), 1663-1669.
Bartoshuk, L. M., Duffy, V. B., & Miller, I. J. (1994). PTC/PROP tasting: anatomy, psychophysics, and sex effects. Physiology & Behavior, 56 (6), 1165-1171.
Drewnowski, A., Henderson, S. A., & Shore, A. B. (1997). Taste responses to naringin, a flavonoid, and the acceptance of grapefruit juice are related to genetic sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66 (2), 391-397.
Tepper, B. J. (1998). 6-n-Propylthiouracil: a genetic marker for taste, with implications for food preference and dietary habits. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 63 (5), 1271-1276.
Duffy, V. B., & Bartoshuk, L. M. (2000). Food acceptance and genetic variation in taste. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 100 (6), 647-655.
Bartoshuk, L. M. (1979). Bitter taste of saccharin related to the genetic ability to taste the bitter substance 6-n-propylthiouracil. Science, 205 (4409), 934-935.
Tepper, B. J., & Nurse, R. J. (1998). PTC taster status is related to fat perception and preference. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 885 (1), 802- 804.
Perola, M. (2007). Same genetic omponents underlie different measures of sweet taste preference. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86 (6), 1663–1669.
Dowdey, S. (2007). How taste works. How Stuff Works.