Painting Therapy in Improvement of the Symptoms of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Psychology and Behavioral Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 3, June 2019, Pages: 79-84
Received: Dec. 27, 2018;
Accepted: Apr. 1, 2019;
Published: Jul. 8, 2019
Views 470 Downloads 82
Kaveh Moghaddam, Department of Exceptional Children Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Aida Ravarian, Pediatrics Neurorehabilitation Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Farhoud Saied Ershadi, Department of Orthosis and Prosthesis, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Objective: Children with autism spectrum disorder suffer from problems such as qualitative impairment in the social interactions and stereotypical behaviors and the purpose of many interventions is the dynamic involvement of the families in the treatment and rehabilitation of these children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of educational application of family-centered painting techniques on social interactions and stereotypical behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder. Methods: This applied experimental study was conducted using the pre-test-posttest with follow-up and control group design. In this study, 20children with autism spectrum disorder and their parents were selected by the available sampling method and then, they were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Then, the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-I questionnaire was applied at pre-test, posttest and follow-up stages and educational application of family-centered painting techniques was applied just for the experimental group. Then the data were analyzed by the ANCOVA and the repeated measures as statistical methods. Results: An alpha of 0.05 was considered as the significance level and the results showed a significant difference between experimental and control groups in social interactions and stereotypical behaviors of the children. Follow-up tests showed a significant difference and durability, as well. Conclusions: The results showed that educational application of family-centered painting techniques can play an effective and durable role in improvement of social interactions and stereotypical behaviors of the children with autism spectrum disorder.
Farhoud Saied Ershadi,
Painting Therapy in Improvement of the Symptoms of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences.
Vol. 8, No. 3,
2019, pp. 79-84.
Kamkar Yazdannezhad L. The ratio of Arts and mental health improvement of children. Tehran: Faculty of Art and Architecture; Islamic Azad University; Central Tehran Branch; 2006.
Dadsetan. P. Evaluation of children's character based graphical tests. 6th ed. Tehran: Roshd Publications; 2011.
Oliverio Ferraris A. Children's painting and its concepts. 10th ed. Tehran: Dastan publications; 1996.
J. S. Motivational painting and its application in assessing emotional and cognitive skills. Tehran: Roshd Publication; 2001.
Thomas JaS, A. M. J. An Introduction to the Psychology of Children's Drawings. 5th ed. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf; 1990.
A Z. Neuropsychology & Art. USA: Psychology press; 2006.
Case CD, T. Art Therapy with children from Infancy to Adolescence. Newyork & London: Routledge; 2008.
Ozonoff S, Heuny K, Byrd R, Hansen R and Hertz-Picciotto. The Onset of Autism: Patterns of Symptom Emergence in the First Years of Life. 2008: 320-28/ DOI:10.1002/aur.53.
Association AAT. About Art Therapy, 2009.
Case C, Dalley, T. Working with children in Art Therapy. 2nd ed. London: Rutledge; 2006.
Case C, Dalley, T. The Handbook of Art Therapy. 2nd ed. London: Routledge; 2006.
J. S. Art therapy for Autistic Children and adolescents. Tehran: Fararavan; 2008.
Landgartn HB. The Art of clinical treatment. 2nd ed. Tehran: DanzhehPublication; 2003.
Martin N. Art Therapy & Autism: overview & Recommendations. journal of the American Art Therapy Association. 2009; 26 (4): 90-187.
Rajabi Behjat b. Design and testing an art therapy program to improve social interaction of 6 – 12- year autistic students. Tehran: Al-Zahra University; 2011.
. Soichiro M, Yasuyo M, Junichi Y. Gaze Behavior of Children with ASD toward Pictures of Facial Expression. Autism Res Treat. 2015; 2015: 617190. Published online 2015 May 19. doi: 10.1155/2015/617190.
Patten E,. Ausderau K K,. Watson L R,. Baranek G T. Sensory Response Patterns in Nonverbal Children with ASD. Autism Res Treat. 2013; 2013: 436286. Published online 2013 July 15. doi: 10.1155/2013/436286.
Ganji M. Psychopathology according to DSM V. 3rd ed. Tehran: Publication of Savalan; 2013.
Pooheidar M. Comparison of individual and group training effect on mental health and stress in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Tehran: Islamic Azad University of Tehran; 2011.
Anderson B. M, Schnetz- Boutaud N, Bartlett J, Wright H. H, Abramson R. K, Cuccaro M. L, Gilbert JR, Pericak-vance M. A and Haines J. L. Common Genetic Variation in Genes related to dopamine. 2008: 364-69/DOI: 10.1002/aur.55.
Chitgarzadeh P. The mental health of mothers of children with autism. Tehran: Iran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services; 2010.
Wall K. Education and care of adolescents and adults with autism- guide for parents and professionals. Tehran: DanzhehPublication; 2004.
Wall K. Autism & Early years practice. London: paul, chapman; 2006.
Ahmadi SJS, T; Hemmatian, M; Khalili, Z.. Evaluation of psychometric indicators OF diagnostic test for autism (Gars). Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Sciences' Studies. 2011; 1: 87-104.
Ruzich, E. Allison C, Smith P, Auyeuny H. R, Baron-Cohen, S. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Siblings of People with Autism.. 2016, 10 (2): 289-97 / DOI: 10.1002/aur.1651.
Botle S, Poustka, F and Constantino J. N. Assessing Autistic Traits: Cross-cultural Validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS): 2008.: 354-63 / DOI: 10.1002/aur. 49.
Gidley Larson J. C, Mostofsky S. Evidence That the Pattern of Visuomotor Sequence Learning is altered in Children with Autism. 2008: 341-53/ DOI: 10.1002/aur.54.
Kose S et al. Broader Autistic phenotype in Parents of Children with Autism: Autism Spectrum Quotient –Turkish Version. Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, 2013, 67 (1), 20-27.
Greet L, Jarymke M, Hannah B, Lotte van E, Karla Van L, Ilse N. Parenting Behavior in Mothers of Preschool Children with ASD: Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire. Autism Res Treat. 2015; 2015: 381236. Published online 2015 October 29. doi: 10.1155/2015/381236.
Douglas D. Potter, S W. Normal Gaze Cueing in Children with Autism Is Disrupted by Simultaneous Speech Utterances in “Live” Face-to-Face Interactions. Autism Res Treat. 2011; 2011: 545964. Published online 2011 November 24. doi: 10.1155/2011/545964.
Rezendes D L, Scarpa A. Associations between Parental Anxiety/Depression and Child Behavior Problems Related to Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Roles of Parenting Stress and Parenting Self-Efficacy. Autism Res Treat. 2011; 2011: 395190. Published online 2011 December 13. doi: 10.1155/2011/395190.
Skoyles J R. Autism, Context/Noncontext Information Processing, and Atypical Development. Autism Res Treat. 2011; 2011: 681627. Published online 2011 August 14. doi: 10.1155/2011/681627.
Samadi S A, McConkey R. Autism in Developing Countries: Lessons from Iran. Autism Res Treat. 2011; 2011: 145359. Published online 2011 December 25. doi: 10.1155/2011/145359.
Waters P, Healy O. Investigating the Relationship between Self-Injurious Behavior, Social Deficits, and Cooccurring Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res Treat. 2012; 2012: 156481. Published online 2012 November 7. doi: 10.1155/2012/156481.