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Positive Psychology Interventions to Improve Wellbeing and Health Behaviour Adherence in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Scoping Review and Meta-analyses
Psychology and Behavioral Sciences
Volume 9, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages: 68-86
Received: Aug. 30, 2020; Accepted: Sep. 15, 2020; Published: Sep. 28, 2020
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Radhika Ganesan, Department of Psychology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Sankar Radhakrishnan, Department of Psychology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Rajendran Rajamanickam, Department of Educational Management & Applied Psychology, National Institute of Technical Teacher’s Training and Research, Chennai, India
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The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of positive psychological interventions (PPIs) to improve well-being and health behaviour adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Medline, PsycINFO, the Cochrane register, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were systematically searched to find relevant studies until January 2020. The primary outcome was reduction in risk factors of cardiovascular disease including HbA1c, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure along with improvement in positive affect, optimism, self-efficacy, and health behaviour adherence such as diet, exercise and medication. The secondary outcomes were reduction in depression, anxiety and stress. A random-effect model was used to compare group effect size at post-test. We identified a total of 11 studies (N=1594 participants) with substantial variability in the interventions. Overall, the results provide evidence that multi-component PPIs have a small but significant effect on positive affect, optimism, health behaviour, self-care and BMI. Further, the review demonstrates that PPIs can be effective in the reduction of anxiety and stress symptoms. However, studies included in this review are heterogenous due to methodological variation, therefore, in future more studies across a wide range of PP interventions needs to be included in order to validate the findings and for conclusive evidence.
Positive Psychology, Well-being, Health Behaviour Adherence, Depression, Interventions, Effectiveness, Randomized Controlled Trials
To cite this article
Radhika Ganesan, Sankar Radhakrishnan, Rajendran Rajamanickam, Positive Psychology Interventions to Improve Wellbeing and Health Behaviour Adherence in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Scoping Review and Meta-analyses, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 5, 2020, pp. 68-86. doi: 10.11648/j.pbs.20200905.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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