The Role of Socio-demographic Variables, Sexual Relationship, Marital Stability, Marital Communication and Conflict Resolution in Marital Satisfaction Among Married Individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Intact and harmonious marital relationships are required not only for the mental health of the individual but also for children and thus, for the society in the broader sense. But unsatisfying and stressful marital relations lead to increased emotional disturbances and marital disruption. This study aimed to assess the role of socio-demographic, sexual relationship, marital stability, marital communication and marital conflict resolution in marital satisfaction among married individuals. The target population for this study was all heterosexual married individuals, legally bound by the state of marriage as husband and wife. Quantitative research design and a systematic sampling technique along with a simple random sampling technique were employed to select 326 households. Frequency and percentages, means, standard deviations, Pearson correlation, independent sample T-test, one-way ANOVA, and hierarchical multiple linear regressions were all used to compute sample statistic. In the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis, from the socio-demographic variables, only age and occupation type predicted significantly married individuals’ marital satisfaction, b = -.13, β = -.08 and b = 7.37, β = .09, respectively, p < .05. The result implies that age has a negative impact whereas occupation type has a positive impact on the marital satisfaction of married individuals. Sexual relationships, marital stability, marital conflict resolution, and marital communication were significant predictors of marital satisfaction, with other variables held constant, at p < .001. The most important predictors of marital satisfaction as the results of the study disclosed were sexual relationships followed by marital stability (b = .51, β = .28, and b = 1.04, β = .27, respectively, p < .001). Together all the significant independent variables in the model accounted for 74% of the variance in married individuals’ marital satisfaction and the model was significant, F (10,297) =45.83, p < .001. This study adds a sound, contextual and specific knowledge to the existing marriage counseling practices and theories as well to enhance or reduce factors for married individuals’ marital satisfaction.
The Role of Socio-demographic Variables, Sexual Relationship, Marital Stability, Marital Communication and Conflict Resolution in Marital Satisfaction Among Married Individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences.
Vol. 9, No. 6,
2020, pp. 87-98.
Umberson Debra, Williams Kristi, Powers Daniel A, and Chen Meichu. As Good as It Gets? A Life Course Perspective on Marital Quality. Social Forces. 2005; 84: 493–511. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar].
Fincham, F, & Beach, S., 2010. Marriage in the new millennium: A decade in review. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 630-649.
Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers, W. L. (1976). The quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluations, and satisfactions. Russell Sage Foundation.
Shek DTL and Cheung CK. Dimensionality of the Chinese Dyadic Adjustment Scale based on confirmatory factor analyses. Social Indicators Research. 2008; 86: 201–212.
Lee, K. S., Ono, H., 2008. Specialization and happiness in marriage: A US-Japan comparison. Social Science Research 37, 1216-1234.
Brassard, A. Shaver, A., and P. R. Lussier, Y, (2007) Attachment, sexual, experiences, and sexual pressure in Romantic relationships: A Dyadic Approach, personal relationships, 14, 475-493).
Jose, O. & Alfons, V. (2007). Do demographics affect marital satisfaction? Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 33, 73–85.
Renaud, C., Byers, E. S., & Pan, S. (1997). Sexual and relationship satisfaction in Mainland China. The Journal of Sex Research, 34, 399-410.
Sprecher, S. (2002). Sexual satisfaction in premarital relationships: Associations with satisfaction, love, commitment, and stability. The Journal of Sex Research, 39, 190-196.
White, L., & Edwards, J. N. (1990). Emptying the nest and parental well-being: An analysis of national panel data. American Sociological Review, 55, 235-242.
Hsueh, A. C., Morrison, K. R., & Doss, B. D. (2009). Qualitative report of problems in cohabiting relationships: Comparisons to married and dating relationships. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 236-246.
Kurdek, L. A., & Schmitt, J. P. (1986). Relationship quality of partners in heterosexual married, heterosexual cohabiting, and gay and lesbian relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (4), 711-720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1991
Fisher, T. D., & McNulty, J. K. (2008). Neuroticism and marital satisfaction: The mediating role played by the sexual relationship. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 112-122.
Gattis, K. S., Berns, S., Simpson, L. E., & Christensen, A. (2004). Birds of a feather or strange birds? Ties among personality dimensions, similarity, and marital quality. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 564-574.
Reath, R. A., Piercy, F., Hovestadt, A., & Oliver, M. (1980). Assertion and marital adjustment. Family Relations, 29, 249-253.
Clymer, S. R. (2006). The relationship among romantic attachment style, conflict resolution style, and sexual satisfaction. Journal of Couple and Relationship Therapy, 5, 71-89.
Egeci, I. S., & Gencoz, Tulin. (2006). Factors associated with relationship satisfaction: Importance of communication skills. Contemporary Family Therapy, 28, 383-391.
Lemmens, G. M. D., Buysse, A., Heene, E., Eisler, I. & Demyttenaere, K. (2007). Marital satisfaction, conflict communication, attachment style, and psychological distress in couples with hospitalized depressed patients. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 19, 109-117.
Shek, D. T. L. (1994). Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient, 37 (1), 7-17.
Amato, P. R., Johnson, D. R., & Rogers, S. J. (2003). Continuity and change in marital quality between 1980 and 2000. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65 (1), 1-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741 3737.2003.00001.x
Basat, Ç. (2004). An exploration of marital satisfaction, locus of control, and self- esteem as predictors of sexual satisfaction. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
Guo, B., & Huang, J. (2005). Marital and sexual satisfaction in Chinese families: Exploring the moderating effects. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 31, 21-29.
Christenson, O. D., Zabriskie, R. B., Eggett, D. L., & Freeman, P. A. (2006). Family acculturation, family leisure involvement, and family functioning among Mexican-Americans. Journal of Leisure Research, 38, 475-495.
Argyle, M., & Furnham, A. (1983). Sources of satisfaction and conflict in long-term relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45 (3), 481-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351654
Hill, A. (2008). Predictors of relationship satisfaction: The link between cognitive flexibility, compassionate love, and level of differentiation. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Alliant International University.
Moore, K. A., McCabe, M. P., & Brink, R. B. (2001). Are married couples happier in their relationships than cohabiting couples? Intimacy and relationship factors. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 16, 35-46.
Kurdek, L. A. (2005). Gender and marital satisfaction early in marriage: A growth curve approach. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 68-74.
Yeh, H., Lorenz, F. O., Wickrama, K. A. S., Conger, R. D., & Elder, Jr., G. H. (2006). Relationships among sexual satisfaction, marital quality, and marital instability at midlife. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 339-343.
Gager, C. T., & Sanchez, L. (2003). Two as one? Couples’ perceptions of time spent together, marital quality, and the risk of divorce. Journal of Family Issues, 24 (1), 21-50.
Segrin, C., and Flora, J., 2011. Family communication. Routledge.
Gottman, J. M., & Notarius, C. I. (2002). Marital research in the 20th century and a research.
Kurdek, L. A. (1995). Predicting change in marital satisfaction from husbands’ and wives’ conflict resolution styles. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 153-164.
Gwanfogbe, P. N., Schumm, W. R., Smith, M., Furrow, J. L., 1997. Polygyny and marital life satisfaction: An exploratory study from rural Cameroon. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 28, 55-71.
Pimentel, E. F., 2000. Just how do I love thee? Marital relations in urban China. Journal of Marriage and the Family 62, 32-47.
Whyte, M. K. (1990). Dating, mating, and marriage. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Spanier GB. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment - New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. Journal of Marriage and the Family. 38: 15–28. [Ref list].
Busby, D. M., Christensen, C., Crane, D. R., & Larson, J. H. (1995). A revision of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale for use with distressed and non-distressed couples: Construct hierarchy and multidimensional scales. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 21, 289-308.
Crane, D. R., Middleton, K. C., & Bean, R. A. (2000). Establishing criterion scores for the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale and the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale.
Weiss, R. L., & Cerreto, M. (1980). The Marital Status Inventory: Development of a measure of dissolution potential. American Journal of Family Therapy.
Crane, D. R., & Mead, D. E. (1980). The Marital Status Inventory: Some preliminary data on an instrument to measure marital dissolution potential. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 8 (3). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Fournier, D. G., Olson, D. H. & Druckman, J. M. (1983). Assessing marital and premarital relationships: The PREPARE/ENRICH Inventories. In E. E. Filsinger (Ed.), Marriage and family assessment. (pp. 229-250). Newbury, CA: SAGE Publishing.
Fowers, B. J., & Olson, D. H. (1989). ENRICH Marital Inventory: A Discriminant Validity and Cross-Validity Assessment, 15 (1), 65–79.
George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory (3rd Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Garson, D. G. (2007). Path analysis. Retrieved from http://www2.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/pa765/path.htm
Belsley, D. A., Kuh. E., 8: Welsch, RE 1980. Regression diagnostics: Identifying inﬂuential data and sources of collinearity.
Cohen, P., West, S. G., and Aiken, L. S., 2014. Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Psychology Press.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Osborne J., Waters E. (2002). Four assumptions of multiple regressions that researchers should always test. Pract. Assess. Res. Eval. 8 Available at http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=8&n=2
Gottman, John. (2007). Predicting the Longitudinal Course of Marriages. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. 17. 3 - 7. 10.1111/j.1752-0606.1991.tb00856.x.
Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (1992). Marital processes are predictive of later dissolution: Behavior, physiology, and health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63 (2), 221–233. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52
Girma Deressu and Zewdu Girma (2019). The Relationship between Premarital Expectation and Marital Satisfaction among Married Couples in Bole Sub-city of Addis Ababa City Administration. Psychology Research, Vol. 9, No. 10, 387-400. doi: 10.17265/2159-5542/2019.10.001.