The Political and Historical Representation of Statues in Three Ethiopian Consecutive Regimes (1889 - Present)
Volume 6, Issue 2, April 2017, Pages: 35-44
Received: Jan. 16, 2017;
Accepted: Jan. 29, 2017;
Published: Mar. 27, 2017
Views 1854 Downloads 75
Mulualem Daba Tola, Department Public Relation and Strategic Communication, College of Social Sciences and Humanities, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia
Statues are symbols which represent dynamic societal values. They serve as a rallying point for shared common memory and identity and, hence, are used as a collective remembrance. They also have a power to immortalize an intended ideology. Statue is an object that represents the religion, history, culture, art, socio- economic and political practices of one nation. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the political representation of iconic statues erected in three, Imperial monarchy, Derg Military Junta and Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) regimes in Ethiopia. To achieve this purpose, several documents from Culture and Tourism Bureaus and library archives are analyzed qualitatively. The study lastly summarizes the erected statues in the three Ethiopia regimes are highly tied with the political manifesto each regime. In the process of political shift, when the former regime replaced by the new one, simultaneously, the former statues are dismantled and dislocated and the new statues that represents the current political ideology are constructed and replaced. Accordingly, it concluded that, statues represent the political context of these three consecutive regimes in Ethiopian polity.
Mulualem Daba Tola,
The Political and Historical Representation of Statues in Three Ethiopian Consecutive Regimes (1889 - Present), Social Sciences.
Vol. 6, No. 2,
2017, pp. 35-44.
Aalen L. (2002). Ethnic Federalism in a Dominant Party State: The Ethiopian Experience 1991-2000. Norway. Chr. Michelson Institute Development Studies and Human Rights.
Addis Ababa City Administration Communication Office. (2009). Lists Of Monuments in Addis Ababa. (unpublished).
Addis Ababa Municipality. (1950). Mirror of Addis Ababa. Berhanina Selam printing press, Addis Ababa.
Alamayo Kano. (1901). The Oromo: An Ancient People in the State Of Menelik. Finfinnee. Oromia Culture and Tourism Bureau.
Armstrong P and Choudhury B. (2006). Monument and Architecture in Shaping Bangladeshi National Identity. University of Sydney. Faculty of Architecture.
Assefa Fissiha. (2006). Theory Versus Practice in the Implementation Ethiopia’s Ethnic Federalism. In Turton, D (ED), Ethnic Federalism: The Ethiopian Experience in Comparative Perspectives (pp 131-162). Oxford. James Currey.
Bahru Zawde. (1991). A History of Modern Ethiopia, 1855-1974. London. James Currey.
Bahru Zawde. (1994). The Burden of History: The constraints and Challenges of the Democratization Process in Ethiopia. Ethiopia. Addis Ababa University.
Bahru, Zawde. (2001). A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855-1991, 2nd (ed). Oxford. James Currey.
Biiroo Oromiya Aadaafi Turizimii. (Jildii 1ffaa, Bitootessa 2006). Aadaafi Turizimii. Finfinne.
Biniam Welde. (2004). Memories of the Victory of Adwa: A Focus on Its commemoration (1941-1999). (Unpublished MA thesis.) Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa.
Clay J and Holcomb B. (1986). Politics and the Ethiopian Famine. Cambridge. Mass Cultural Survival.
Doresse, J. (1959). The Greatness of Ethiopia: Legends & Reality. In UNESCO report October, 1959, Africa’s Lost Past: The Startling Rediscovery of a Content (pp 30-32). France: UNESCO.
Dresser, M. (2007). Set in stone? Statues and slavery in London. Retrieved on July 11, 2014 from http://belgeo.revues.org/
Duerksen M. (2012). Monumentalizing Africa’s Momentous Decade: Building Monuments and a Nation in Uganda. (Unpublished MA thesis.) University of Virginia.
Ezekiel Gabissa. (2014). Contested Terrain: The Oromo and Ethiopian Studies. USA. Lutheran University Press.
Finneran N. (2012). Lucy to Lalibela: Heritage and Identity in Ethiopia in the Twenty-First Century. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 19:1, 41-61. Retrieved on 15 May 2014 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2011.633540
Greenfield R. (1965). Ethiopia: A New Political History. London. PALL MALL PRESS Ltd.
Grundlingh, A. M. (2001). A Cultural Conundrum? Old Monuments and New Regimes: The Voortrekker Monuments as Symbol of Afrikaner Power in a Post Apartheid South Africa. Radical History Review, Issue 81, fall 2001, pp. 95-112 Published by Duke University Press. Retrieved 13 July, 2014 from http:/re/muse.jhu.edu/journals/rhr/summary/v081/ 81.1grundlingh.html
Haji Abbas Ganamo. (1995). Menelik's Conquest as the Genesis of Ethiopian Crises. A case of the Arsi Oromo. The Oromo Commentary.
Hartt, F. (1989). A History of Painting. Sculpture. Architecture. New Jersey. Prentice-hall.
Hashim Tewfik. (2010). Transition to Federalism: The Ethiopian Experience. Ottawa, Ontario. Forum of Federations
Holcomb B and Ibssa S. (1990). The Invention of Ethiopia: The Making of a Dependent Colonial State in Northeast Africa. Trenton N. J. Red Sea Press.
Jonson H. M. (1966). History of Art: A Survey of the Major Visual Arts from the Dawn of History to the Present Day. New Jersey. Prentice-hall.
Larsen L. (2013). Power, Politics and Public Monuments in Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved on July10, 2014 from http://www.opendemocracy.net
Marcus H. (1994). A History of Ethiopia. Berkeley: University of California Press.
McClellan Ch. (1978). Reaction to Ethiopian Expansion: The Case of Darese 1895-1913. USA. Michigan.
Merera Gudina. (2003). Ethiopia: Competing Ethnic Nationalisms and the Quest for Democracy, 1960 – 2000. Addis Ababa. Chamber Printing House.
Meskerm Asmamew (2013). Public Monuments of Addis Ababa 1930-1974. Addis Ababa. Goethe Institute.
Pankhurst R. (1982). History of Ethiopian Towns from the middle Ages to the Early Nineteenth Century. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag.
Pausewang S. (1994). The 1994 Election and Democracy in Ethiopia. Human Rights Report Norwegian Institute of Human Rights, University of Oslo.
Public and International Relations Directorate. (2011/12). Addis Ababa City of Glamorous Cultures. Addis Ababa Mayor’s Office.
Sorenson J. (1993). Imagining Ethiopia: Struggle for History and Identity in the Horn Africa. New Brunswick. Rutgers University Press.
Tronvoll K. (2008). War & the Politics of Identity in Ethiopia. UK. James Currey.
Turton D. (2006). Ethnic Federalism: The Ethiopian Experience in Comparative Perspectives Oxford. James Currey.
Whelan, Y. (2001). The construction and destruction of a colonial landscape: Monuments to British monarchs in Dublin before and after independence. Journal of Historical Geography, 28, 4 (2002) 508±533 doi:10.1006/jhge.2002.0441, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com