The Use of Digital Transformation to Address Education Challenges Caused by COVID-19 in Developing Countries
The abrupt coming of Covid-19 has been drastically altered the way the whole world is conducting all its sectors. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of digital transformation to address education Covid-19 challenges, bringing digital opportunities and lessons to developing countries particularly Uganda and Tanzania. This is motivated by the massive challenges, which the education sector in developing nations like Uganda and Tanzania is facing due to covid-19 pandemic outbreak, where students have not be learning since the outbreak in March 2020, hence affecting their normal progress, among other costs. It should be recalled that, the pandemic was first reported on 27 December 2019 in China- in the capital city of Wuhan, in Hubei province . It immediately spread like bush fire and affected mostly at first European nations of Italy, United Kingdom, German France, and United States of America (leading currently). The pandemic later in early March 2020 spread in Africa, which abruptly left them with no choice other than closure of their borders, implementation of WHO guidelines on covid- 19. There was abrupt closure of sectors, which started from education to the rest, apart from the health sector to cater for the patients in many countries including Uganda and Tanzania. This study utilized qualitative method; narrative approach and literature review method, and narrative data analysis and contentment analysis were used. Findings revealed that the use of digital transformation in the education sector has numerous benefits and if embraced fully, it will address the key challenges faced by the education sectors of Uganda and Tanzania as developing countries. The study also revealed that Covid- 19 has increased the use of digital transformation in home personal learning among students who were prior facing a challenge of technophobia and had resorted to brick and mortar learning. The study recommends the adoption and implementation of the proposed of digital transformation framework in education sector to attain UNDP goals, UN sustainable development goals and equip the young generation with digital skills which will eventually reduce poverty via creative and innovative digital online jobs, hence narrowing the digital gap between MDCs and LDCs. This study has limitations, implications and recommendations as detailed in the paper.
The Use of Digital Transformation to Address Education Challenges Caused by COVID-19 in Developing Countries, Social Sciences.
Vol. 9, No. 6,
2020, pp. 233-240.
Al-Swidi, A. K., & Faaeq, M. K. (2019). How robust is the UTAUT theory in explaining the usage intention of e-government services in an unstable security context? A study in Iraq. Electronic Government, an International Journal, 15 (1), 37-66.
Berlak, J., Hafner, S., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2020). Digitalization’s impacts on productivity: a model-based approach and evaluation in Germany’s building construction industry. Production Planning & Control, 1-11.
Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O. A., Pavlou, P. A., & Venkatraman, N. (2013). Digital business strategy: toward a next generation of insights. MIS quarterly, 471-482.
Digital Performance Management Company Dynatrace. (2017). The Global Digital Performance & Transformation Audit Survey, 2017.
Drnevich, P, L., Croson, D, C. (2013). Information technology and business-level strategy: toward an integrated theoretical perspective. MIS Q 37 (2): 483–509.
Fitzgerald, M., Kruschwitz, N., Bonnet, D., & Welch, M. (2013). Embracing Digital Technology: A New Strategic Imperative. MIT Sloan Management Review, Research Report.
Frank, A. G., Dalenogare, L. S., & Ayala, N. F. (2019). Industry 4.0 technologies: Implementation patterns in manufacturing companies. International Journal of Production Economics, 210, 15-26.
Fofanah, A. J. (2018). ICT Usage/Habits for Teaching and Learning at Njala University. Available at SSRN 3294540.
Gurung, B., Rutledge, D. (2014). Digital learners and the overlapping of their personal and educational digital engagement. Comput. Educ. 2014, 77, 91–100.
Gray, J., & Rumpe, B. (2015). Models for digitalization.
Han, D. University Education and Contents in The Fourth Industrial Revolution. Humanit. Contens 2016, 42, 9.
Joseph, B. K. (2017). Determining factors influencing e-government development in the developing world: A case study of Zambia. Journal of e-Government studies and best practices, 2017, 1-16.
Kagoya, M. S, Maiga, G., Jani. D. (2019). An E-government Readiness Assessment framework for Uganda. Proceedings of the 14th Operations Research of East Africa (ORSEA). Tanzania.
Kagoya, M. S., & Mbamba, U. (2019). User Participation Approach to E-government Implementation Success in Uganda Ministries. 15th ORSEA conference paper –Uganda.
Kagoya, M. S. (2020). Tourism Innovations in Developing Economies. Is It Top Leadership and Management Support or embracing ICTs to Boost the Tourism Industry in Uganda? Role Model, Personal Perspective. ATLAS Tourism and Leisure Review, 2020 (1), ISSN 2468–6719, 53-62.
Kagoya, M. S. & Mkwizu, H, K. (2020). ICT Usage in Panelist Sessions to Enhance Completion of PhD Studies in Public Universities – Study of Uganda and Tanzania. ATLAS Tourism and Leisure Review, 2020 (1), ISSN 2468–6719, 63-73.
Kagoya, Mbamba, & Sichone. (2019). User Participation Approach to E-Government Implementation in Developing Countries: A Case of Tanzania. ICAESB conference proceedings: 2019 - Tanzania.
Kelefa T Mwantimwa, Emmanuel Elia, Esther Ndenje-Sichalwe. (2017). Utilisation of E-Resources to Support Teaching and Research in Higher Learning Institutions, Tanzania. University of Dar es Salaam Library journal, 12 (2): 98-123.
Khatun, F., Palas, M. J. U., & Ray, P. K. (2017). Using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model to analyze cloud-based mHealth service for primary care. Digital Medicine, 3 (2), 69.
Li, F. (2020). The digital transformation of business models in the creative industries: A holistic framework and emerging trends. Technovation, 92, 102012.
Marcon, E., Marcon, A., Le Dain, M. A., Ayala, N. F., Frank, A. G., & Matthieu, J. (2019). Barriers for the digitalization of servitization. Procedia CIRP [recurso eletrônico]. [Amsterdam].
McDonald, M., Rowsell-Jones, A.: The Digital Edge: Exploiting Information & Technology for Business Advantage. Gartner Inc. (2012).
Martin, A.: Digital literacy and the “digital society”. Digit. Literacies Concepts Policies Practices 30, 151–176 (2008).
Neubert, M. (2018). The impact of digitalization on the speed of internationalization of lean global startups. Technology Innovation Management Review, 8 (5).
Scwab, K. (2016). The fourth industria revolution. World Economic Forum 91–93 route de la Capite CH-1223 Cologny/Geneva Switzerland.
The Global Digital Performance & Transformation Audit (2017).
Venkatesh, V., Morris, M., Davis, G., & Davis, F. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Towards a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27 (3), 425-478.
Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y. L., & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: Extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 36 (1), 157-178.
Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y. L., & Xu, X. (2016). Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology: A Synthesis and the Road Ahead. Journal of Association Information Systems, 17 (5), 328-376.
Westerman, G., Calméjane, C., Bonnet, D., Ferraris, P., McAfee, A.: Digital Transformation: A Roadmap for Billion-Dollar Organizations, pp. 1–68. MIT Sloan Management, MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting (2011).
WHO. (2020). Pneumonia of unknown cause – China". WHO. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
Wilson, S. (2016). Digital technologies, children and young people's relationships and self-care. Children's Geographies, 14 (3), 282-294.
World Economic Forum Digital Transformation Initiative (DTI) website. Accessed May 13, 2017. http://reports.weforum.org/digital-transformation/
Ziba, P. W., & Kang, J. (2019). Factors affecting the intention to adopt e-government services in Malawi and the role played by donors. Information Development, 0266666919855427.
Harrington, R. J., Ottenbacher, M. C., Richard, W., McCarthy, B., Prasad, A., Emshoff, J. R., & Oliver, J. J. (2017). Assessing your organization’s digital transformation maturity. MIS Q, 37 (2), 1-5.
Baiyere, A., Salmela, H., & Tapanainen, T. (2020). Digital transformation and the new logics of business process management. European Journal of Information Systems, 1-22.
Onder, G., Rezza, G., & Brusaferro, S. (2020). Case-fatality rate and characteristics of patients dying in relation to COVID-19 in Italy. Jama.
Reis, J., Amorim, M., Melão, N., & Matos, P. (2018, March). Digital transformation: a literature review and guidelines for future research. In World conference on information systems and technologies (pp. 411-421). Springer, Cham.
Schwab, K. (2017). The fourth industrial revolution. Currency.
McDonald, M. P., and A. Rowsell-Jones (2012). The Digital Edge: Exploiting Information & Technology for Business Advantage. Gartner eBook.
Hebert, J. (2018). The Effect of Relational Models on Artificial Intelligence. Recent advances in software engineering and computer science, 7 (1).
Kroll, H., Horvat, D., & Jäger, A. (2018). Effects of automatisation and digitalisation on manufacturing companies' production efficiency and innovation performance (No. 58). Fraunhofer ISI Discussion Papers-Innovation Systems and Policy Analysis.