Psychosocial Correlates of Substance Use among Unemployed Persons in Ibadan, Nigeria
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2014, Pages: 32-38
Received: Mar. 24, 2014; Accepted: Apr. 20, 2014; Published: Apr. 30, 2014
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James A. Adekoya, Department of Psychology and Sociology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
Gboyega E. Abikoye, Department of Clinical Psychology, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria
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Background: The study explored the prevalence of substance use among unemployed persons in Ibadan, and the roles of some psychological and socio-demographic variables. Method: A standardized questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from 200 unemployed persons. Respondents’ were 109 males and 91 females, with a mean age of 29.07 and a standard deviation of 5.46. Mean years of graduation (when a respondent had graduated without a job) was 5.38 years with a standard deviation of 3.53. Results: Lifetime and current use of psychoactive substances were 69% and 44% respectively, indicating that this particular population (the unemployed) might be at an elevated risk for substance abuse. The most currently used psychoactive substances were alcohol (36%), followed by stimulants (29%), Tobacco (28%), and sedatives (12.5%), while for lifetime use the following were the most common: alcohol (44.5%), stimulant (35%), tobacco (32%) and cannabis (21%). Results showed that age (r = -.23; p<.05), sex (r = -.39; p<.01), Marital status (r = -.22; p<.05), Number of years of formal education (r = -.27; p<.05), number of years spent after graduation (r = .33; p<.01), personality (r = -.47; p<.01), perceived social support (r = -.41; p<.01), and distress tolerance (r = -.47; p<.01) were significantly related to substance use. Conclusion/Recommendation: Unemployed persons should be considered for social schemes and social security benefits. Also, unemployed persons should be targeted for psychological services such as counseling and specially designed psycho-educational programmes aimed at engendering core self-evaluation traits (high self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, emotional stability and internal locus of control), distress tolerance, and social support
Substance Use, Psychosocial Factors, Unemployment, Nigeria
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James A. Adekoya, Gboyega E. Abikoye, Psychosocial Correlates of Substance Use among Unemployed Persons in Ibadan, Nigeria, American Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2014, pp. 32-38. doi: 10.11648/j.ajap.20140302.12
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