Psychosocial Correlates of Substance Use among Unemployed Persons in Ibadan, Nigeria
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2014, Pages: 32-38
Received: Mar. 24, 2014;
Accepted: Apr. 20, 2014;
Published: Apr. 30, 2014
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James A. Adekoya, Department of Psychology and Sociology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
Gboyega E. Abikoye, Department of Clinical Psychology, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria
Background: The study explored the prevalence of substance use among unemployed persons in Ibadan, and the roles of some psychological and socio-demographic variables. Method: A standardized questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from 200 unemployed persons. Respondents’ were 109 males and 91 females, with a mean age of 29.07 and a standard deviation of 5.46. Mean years of graduation (when a respondent had graduated without a job) was 5.38 years with a standard deviation of 3.53. Results: Lifetime and current use of psychoactive substances were 69% and 44% respectively, indicating that this particular population (the unemployed) might be at an elevated risk for substance abuse. The most currently used psychoactive substances were alcohol (36%), followed by stimulants (29%), Tobacco (28%), and sedatives (12.5%), while for lifetime use the following were the most common: alcohol (44.5%), stimulant (35%), tobacco (32%) and cannabis (21%). Results showed that age (r = -.23; p<.05), sex (r = -.39; p<.01), Marital status (r = -.22; p<.05), Number of years of formal education (r = -.27; p<.05), number of years spent after graduation (r = .33; p<.01), personality (r = -.47; p<.01), perceived social support (r = -.41; p<.01), and distress tolerance (r = -.47; p<.01) were significantly related to substance use. Conclusion/Recommendation: Unemployed persons should be considered for social schemes and social security benefits. Also, unemployed persons should be targeted for psychological services such as counseling and specially designed psycho-educational programmes aimed at engendering core self-evaluation traits (high self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, emotional stability and internal locus of control), distress tolerance, and social support
James A. Adekoya,
Gboyega E. Abikoye,
Psychosocial Correlates of Substance Use among Unemployed Persons in Ibadan, Nigeria, American Journal of Applied Psychology.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2014, pp. 32-38.
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