The Strange Situation Procedure: The Role of the Attachment Patterns in the Italian Culture
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 47-56
Received: Mar. 5, 2014;
Accepted: May 5, 2014;
Published: May 10, 2014
Views 3831 Downloads 190
Alessandra Simonelli, Department of Developmental and Socialization Psychology, University of Padua, Padova Pd Italy
Francesca De Palo, Department of Developmental and Socialization Psychology, University of Padua, Padova Pd Italy
Marilena Moretti, Department of Developmental and Socialization Psychology, University of Padua, Padova Pd Italy
Paola Merlin Baratter, Department of Developmental and Socialization Psychology, University of Padua, Padova Pd Italy
Alessio Porreca, Department of Developmental and Socialization Psychology, University of Padua, Padova Pd Italy
The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP; Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, Wall, 1978) is the most widely used procedure to assess attachment in early childhood (Bowlby, 1969, 1973, 1980). Indeed, this method finds very large application in many fields of research and, particularly, in the intercultural study of attachment. The intercultural applications of the SSP, are referred to various Western cultures and cultures other than the Western one, such as, for instance, the African, Chinese, Japanese and Israeli ones. In this research 76 12-month-old infants were observed in the SSP in order to assess the distribution of infant-mother attachment in the Italian culture, and to compare the pattern classification with other national (Ammaniti et al., 1994; Tambelli et al. 2008) and international non-clinical samples (van IJzendoorn et al., 1992; Schuengel et al., 1999). Results: Results show a significant lower proportion of Secure attachment and more Insecure Avoidant one in the Italian group than in US samples of meta-analytic studies. From a socio-cultural perspective, a possible explanation for the obtained results can be found in the peculiar changes which have come about in child-rearing procedures, especially in first infancy. This behavioral organization could show an adjustment strategy within a context which is not exclusively dyadic anymore, but which requires an ability to find resources even in a condition characterized by daily separations, multiple interactions and repeated caregiving micro-modifications.
Francesca De Palo,
Paola Merlin Baratter,
The Strange Situation Procedure: The Role of the Attachment Patterns in the Italian Culture, American Journal of Applied Psychology.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2014, pp. 47-56.
Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1985). Patterns of infant-mother attachment: antecedents and effects on development. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 61, 771-791
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Bell, S. M., Stayton, D. J. (1971). Infant-mother attachment and social development: sociali-zation as a product of reciprocal responsiveness to signals. In M. P. M. Richards (Eds), The inte-gration of a child into a social world, Cambridge University Press, London, 99-135
Ainsworth, M. D., Blehar, M., Waters, E., Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Ainsworth, M. D. S, Wittig B. A. (1969). Attachment and explorato-ry behavior of one-year-olds in a strange-situation. In B. M. Foss (Eds), Determinants of infant behavior IV, Methuen, London, 113-136.
Ammaniti M., Candelori C., Pola M., Speranza A. M., Tambelli R. (1994). Influenze culturali e dinamiche relazionali nell’attaccamento infantile: Indagine su un campione italiano, Età Evolutiva, 47, 90-109
Bakermans-Kranenburg M. J., van Ijzendoorn M H. (1993). A psychometric study of the Adult Attachment Interview-reliability and discriminant validity. Developmental Psychology, 29, 870-879
Belsky, J., Rovine, M., Taylor, D. G. (1984). The Pennsylvania Infant and Family Development Project, III. The origins of individual differences in infant-mother attachment: Maternal and infant contributions. Child De-velopment, 55, 718-728
Belsky J., Isabella R. A. (1991). Interactional synchrony and the origins of infant-mother attachment: a replication study. Child Development , 62, 373-384
Bowlby J. (1968/1982). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. Basic Books, (NY)
Bowlby J. (1973). Attachment and loss, Vol. 2, Separation, anxiety and anger, Hogarth Press, London.
Bowlby J. (1980). Attachment and loss, vol. 3, Loss, sadness and depression, Hogarth Press, London.
De Wolff M. S., Ijzendoorn M. H. Van (1997). Sensi-tivity and attachment: a meta-analysis on parental antecedents of infants attachment, Child De-velopment, 68, 571-591
Fava Vizziello G., Calvo V., Simonelli A. (2003). Sicurezza e insicurezza dell’attaccamento nella prima infanzia in una prospettiva interculturale, Età Evolutiva, 75, 36-50
Goldsmith H. H., Alansky J. A. (1987). Maternal and infant predictors of at-tachment: A meta-analytic review, Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 55, 805-816
Grossmann K. E., Grossmann K., Huber F., Wartner U. (1981). German children’s behavior towards their mothers at 12 months and their fathers at 18 months in Ainsworth’s Strange Situation, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 4, 157-181
Grossmann K. E., Grossmann K., Spangler G., Suess G., Unzner L. (1985). Mater-nal Sensitivity and Newborns’ Orientation Responses as Related to Quality of Attachment in Northern Germany. In I. Bretherton, E. Waters (Eds.), Growing Points of Attachment Theory and Research, in “Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development”, 50, 1-2, 209, 233-56
Isabella R. A. (1993). Origins of attachment: maternal interactive behavior across the first year. Child Development, 64, 605-621
Main M., Solomon J. (1986). Discovery of a new, insecure-disorganized-disoriented attachment pattern. In: Brazelton T.B., Yogman M. (Eds) Affective development in infancy, Ablex, Norwood
Main M., Solomon J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants ad disorganized-disoriented during Ainsworth Strange Situation. In: Greenberg M. T., Cicchetti A., Cummings M. E. (Eds) Attachment in the preschool years. Theory, research and intervention, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago
Main, M., Weston, D. (1981). Quality of attachment to mother and to father: related to conflict behaviour and the readiness for establishing new relationships, Child Development, 52, 932-940
Meins E. (1997). Security of Attachment and the Social Development of Intelligence, Psychology Press, Hove
Miyake K., Chen S., Campos J. J. (1985). Infant temperament, Mother’s Mode of Interaction, and Attachment in Japan: An Interim Report. In I. Bretherton, E. Waters (Eds), Growing Points of Attachment Theory and Research, in Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50, 1-2, 209, 276-97
Sagi A. (1990). Attachment theory and research from a cross-cultural perspective. Human Development, 33, 10-22
Sagi A., Lamb M. E., Lewkowicz K. S., Shoham R., Dvir R., Estes D., (1985). Security of infant-mother-father, and metapelet attachment among kibbutz-reared Israeli children. In I. Bretherton, E. Waters (Eds), Growing points in attachment theory and research, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50, 1-2, 209, 257-275
Schuengel C., Bakermans-Kranenburg M. J., Ijzendoorn M. H. Van (1999). Frightening maternal behavior linking unresolved loss and disorganized infant attachment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 54-63.
Schneider-Rosen K., Rothbaum P. (1993). Quality of Parental Caregiving and Security of Attachment, Developmental Psychology, 29, 358 – 367
Seifer R., Shiller M., Sameroff A. J., Resnik S., Riordan K., (1996). Attachment, maternal sensitivity and infant temperament during the first year of life, Developmental Psychology, 32, 1, 12-25
Smith, P. B., Pederson, D. R. (1988). Maternal sensitivity and patterns of infant-mother attachment. Child Development, 59, 4, 1097-1101
Solomon J., George C. (2002). Attaccamento e accudimento: il sistema comportamentale di accudimento. In J. Cassidy, P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Manuale dell’attaccamento. Roma, Fioriti Editore, 737-760
Takahashi K., (1990). Are the key assumptions the “Strange Situation” procedure universal? A view from Japanese research, Human Development, 33, 23-30
Tambelli R., Odorisio F, Speranza A. M., Realini R, Ammaniti M. (2008). Le Differenze di gioco tra madre-bambino e padre-bambino: uno studio osservativo sull'attività ludica durante la Strange Situation. Psicologia Clinica Dello Sviluppo, 2, 200-216
Thompson R. A. (2002). Attaccamento infantile e sviluppo successivo. In J. Cassidy, P. R. Shaver (Eds), Manuale dell’attaccamento, Fioriti Editore, Roma, 807-830
van Ijzendoorn M. H., Kroonenberg P. M (1988). Cross-cultural patterns of at-tachment: a meta-analysis of the strange situation. Child Development, 59, 147-156
van Ijzendoorn M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg M. (2005). Sensibilità materna e temperamento infantile nella formazione del legame di attaccamento. In Cassibba R., van IJzendoorn M. H. (Eds), L’intervento basato sull’attaccamento, Bologna: Il Mulino
van Ijzendoorn M. H., Dijkstra J., Bus A. G. (1995). Attachment, intelligence and language: a meta-analysis, Social Development, 4, 115-128
van Ijzendoorn M. H., Goldberg S., Kroonenberg P. M., Frenkel O. J. (1992). The relative effects of maternal and child problems on the quality of attachment: a meta-analysis of attachment in clinical samples, Child Development , 63, 840-858
van Ijzendoorn M. H., Kroonenberg P. M. (1988). Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: a meta-analysis of the strange situation. Child Development, 59, 147-156.
van Ijzendoorn M. H., Sagi A. (2002). Modelli trans-culturali di attaccamento: dimensioni universali e contestuali. In Cassidy J., Shaver P. R., Manuale dell’attaccamento, Fioriti Editore, Roma, 807-830
Waters E. (1979). The reliabil-ity and Stability of Individual Differences in Infant-Mother Attachment, Child Development, 49, 971-5
Weinfield N. S., Sroufe A., Egeland B., Carlson E. A. (2002). La natura delle differenze individuali nell’attaccamento del bambino al caregiver. In J. Cassidy, P. R. Shaver, Manuale dell’attaccamento, Fioriti Editore, Roma, 78-100