Comparison of Ego Strength between Addicted and Non Addicted People from Karaj and Tehran Cities of Iran
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 166-168
Received: Sep. 4, 2014;
Accepted: Sep. 16, 2014;
Published: Oct. 30, 2014
Views 2452 Downloads 119
Zynab Rezaei Behbahani, Department of Psychology, College of Psychology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran
Ali Reza Kakavand, Faculty of Social Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
A healthy ego-strength is connected to a healthy self-concept, one that is flexible, thus can look at a situation and see outcome of it, understand the difference between wants and needs, and practices acceptance to distinguish between what can and cannot be changed, to respond accordingly. The aim of this research was to compare the ego strength of addicted and non addicted people. The sample size of 200 men (100 addicts+ 100 non addicts) living in Karaj and Tehran cities of Islamic Republic of Iran that was selected through the availability sampling. To collect data, a 52-item BESS (Barron’s ego strength scale) questionnaire was used. The normal t-test was applied as statistics methods and for data analysis using SPSS software. Sig.-value of 0.0001 indicates that the difference between the addicted and healthy people is statistically significant. The high ego-strength scores of the healthy people indicate that they can defeat the difficulties. On the other hand, the low ego-strength scores of the addicted people indicate that they cannot overcome the problem correctly.
Zynab Rezaei Behbahani,
Ali Reza Kakavand,
Comparison of Ego Strength between Addicted and Non Addicted People from Karaj and Tehran Cities of Iran, American Journal of Applied Psychology.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2014, pp. 166-168.
Vaillant, G.E. (1971). -Theoretical hierarchy of adaptive ego mechanisms. Archives of General Psychiatry, 24, 107 pp.
Symister, P. & Friend, R. (2003). -The influence of social support and problematic support on optimism and de- pression in chronic illness: A prospective study evaluating self-esteem as a mediator. Health Psychology, 22, 123 pp.
Bagby, R.M., Quilty, L.C. & Ryder, A.C. (2008). -Per- sonality and depression. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 14 pp.
Wisco, B.E. (2009). -Depressive cognition: Self-reference and depth of processing. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 382 pp.
Sanz Guajardo, D., Orte, L., Gomez-Compderà, F., Fer- nandez, E., Aguilar, M.D., Làzaro, P. & Inesir, Group. (2006). -Quality of life in patients with chronic renal fail-ure influence of nephrologist’s early intervention and pre- dialysis clinical visit consultation. Nephrology, 26, 56 pp.
Sayin, A., Mutluay, R. & Sindel, S. (2007). -Quality of life in hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and transplanta- tion patients. Transplantation Proceedings, 39, 3047 pp.
Gotlib, I.H. & Joormann, J. (2010). -Cognition and de- pression: Current status and future directions. Annual Re- view of Clinical Psychology, 6, 285 pp.
Folkman, S. (2008). -The case for positive emotions in the stress process. Anxiety Stress Coping, 21, 3 pp.
Fredrickson, B.L. (2006). -Unpacking positive emotions: Investigating the seeds of human flourishing. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 57-59.
Khaledian, M. (2013). -The relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EQ) with self-esteem and test anxiety and also their academic achievements. Psychol. Social Behav. Res., 1, 1 pp.
Engler, J. (1984). -Therapeutic aims in psychotherapy and meditation. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 16, 1pp.
Benedek, T. (1959). -Parenthood as a developmental phase. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 7, 389 pp.
Alpher, V. S. (1996). -Identity and introject in dissociative disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(6), 1238 pp.