Self-Defining and Early Childhood Memories: Subjective Intensity Rating of Memory-Related Emotions
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 5, Issue 5, September 2016, Pages: 32-37
Received: Sep. 30, 2016; Accepted: Oct. 14, 2016; Published: Nov. 23, 2016
Views 2310      Downloads 56
Authors
Ornella Montebarocci, Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Paola Surcinelli, Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Nicolino Cesare Franco Rossi, Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The aim of the present research was to explore the subjective rating of emotional intensity during the recall of memory-related emotions. 41 participants retrieved two different types of autobiographical memory – i.e., a self-defining memory and an earliest childhood memory – and rated the intensity of the emotions experienced during the recall of each memory (anger, sadness, fear, happiness, shame and guilt). The latency and duration times of the narratives were also collected. Self-defining memories seemed to be perceived as more intense compared to earliest childhood memories, confirming the strong emotional charge that characterizes these types of memories. Longer duration times of the narratives were also observed for self-defining memories compared to earliest childhood memories. These results lend more support to differences between self-defining and early childhood memories. They also suggest that emotional experiences associated with self-relevant memories constitute the key to the self- and other-understanding in everyday meaningful interactions as well as in a clinical therapeutic setting.
Keywords
Self-Defining Memory, Earliest Childhood Memory, Emotional Intensity, Subjective Rating
To cite this article
Ornella Montebarocci, Paola Surcinelli, Nicolino Cesare Franco Rossi, Self-Defining and Early Childhood Memories: Subjective Intensity Rating of Memory-Related Emotions, American Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2016, pp. 32-37. doi: 10.11648/j.ajap.20160505.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Conway, M. A. (2005). Memory and the self. Journal of Memory and Language, 53, 594–628. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2005.08.005
[2]
Conway, M. A., Singer, J. A., & Tagini, A. (2004). The self and autobiographical memory: correspondence and coherence. Social Cognition, 22, 491–529. doi10.1521/soco.22.5.491.50768
[3]
Conway, M. A., & Pleydell-Pearce, C. W. (2000). The construction of autobiographical memories in the self-memory system. Psychological Review, 107, 261–288. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.107.2.261
[4]
Bluck, S. B., Alea, N., Habermas, T., & Rubin, D. C. (2005). A tale of three functions: the self-reported uses of autobiographical memory. Social Cognition, 23, 91–117. doi: 10.1521/soco.23.1.91.59198
[5]
Pillemer, D. B. (2001). Momentous events and the life story. Review of general psychology, 5, 123–134. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.5.2.123
[6]
Rubin, D. C., Schrauf, R. W., & Greenberg, D. L. (2003). Belief and recollection of autobiographical memories. Memory and Cognition, 31, 887–901. doi: 10.3758/BF03196443
[7]
Singer, J. A., & Salovey, P. (1993). The remembered self. New York: The Free Press
[8]
Singer, J. A., Blagov, P., Berry, M., Oost, K. M. (2012). Self-defining memories, scripts, and the life story: narrative identity in personality and psychotherapy. Journal of Personality. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12005
[9]
Sutin, A. R., & Robins, R. W. (2007). The phenomenology of autobiographical memory: the memory experiences questionnaire. Memory, 15, 390–411. doi: 10.1080/09658210701256654
[10]
West, T. A., & Bauer, P. J. (1999). Assumptions of infantile amnesia: are there differences between early and later memories?. Memory, 7, 257–278. doi: 10.1080/096582199387913
[11]
Alea, N., & Bluck, S. (2003). Why are you telling me that? A conceptual model of the social function of autobiographical memory. Memory, 11, 165178. doi: 10.1080/741938207
[12]
Singer, J. A. (2004). A love story: Using self-defining memories in couples therapy. In R. Josselson, D. P. McAdams, R. Josselson, & A. Lieblich (Eds.), Healing plots: Narrative and psychotherapy (pp. 189–208). Washington DC: American Psychological Association
[13]
Singer, J. A., Baddeley, J. L., & Frantsve, L. (2008). Supervision in person-centered and narrative psychotherapy. In A. K. Hess (Ed.), Psychotherapy supervision: Theory, research and practice (pp. 114–136). New York: Wiley
[14]
Singer, J. A., & Bonalume, L. (2010). Autobiographical memory narratives in psychotherapy: A coding system applied to the case of Cynthia. Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy, 6, 134–188
[15]
Singer, J. A., & Singer, J. L. (1992). Transference in psychotherapy and daily life: Implications of current memory and social cognition research. In J. W. Barron, M. N. Eagle, & D. L. Wolitzky, Interface of Psychoanalysis and Psychology (pp. 516–538). Washington, DC: APA Publications
[16]
Haynes, S. N., & Williams, A. E. (2003) Case formulation and design of behavioural treatment programs. Psychological Assessment, 19, 164–174. doi: 10.1027//1015-5759.19.3.164
[17]
Schacter, D. L. (1996). Searching for memory: The brain, the mind, and the past. New York, NY, US: Basic Books
[18]
Bradley, M. M., Greenwald, M. K., Petry, M. C., & Lang, P. J. (1992). Remembering pictures: pleasure and arousal in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 18, 379–390. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.18.2.379
[19]
Rubin, D. C., & Talarico, J. M. (2009). A comparison of dimensional models of emotion: Evidence from emotions, prototypical events, autobiographical memories, and words. Memory, 17, 802–808. doi: 10.1080/09658210903130764
[20]
Talarico, J. M., LaBar, K. S., & Rubin, D. C. (2004). Emotional intensity predicts autobiographical memory experience. Memory & Cognition, 32, 1118–1132. doi: 10.3758/BF03196886
[21]
Montebarocci, O., Luchetti, M., & Sutin, A. R. (2013) Age, memory type, and the phenomenology of autobiographical memory: Findings from an Italian sample. Memory. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2013.786093
[22]
Izard, C. E. (1992). Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion-cognition relations. Psychological Review, 99, 561–565. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.99.3.561
[23]
Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O’Connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and social psychology, 52, 1061–1086. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.52.6.1061
[24]
Stein, N. L., & Oatley, K. (1992). Basic emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 6, 161–324. doi: 10.1080/02699939208411067
[25]
Tangney, J. P. (1999). The self-conscious emotions: Shame, guilt, embarrassment and pride. In T. Dalgleish, M. J. Power (Eds.), Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. (pp. 541–568). John Wiley & Sons Ltd: New York, US. doi: 10.1002/0470013494.ch26
[26]
D'Argembeau, A, Comblain, C., & Van der Linden, M. (2005). Affective valence and the self-reference effect: Influence of retrieval conditions. British Journal of Psychology, 96, 457–466. doi: 10.1348/000712605X53218
[27]
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for The Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II). San Antonio: Psychological Corporation; Beck AT, Steer RA, Ball R, Ranieri W. Comparison of Beck Depression Inventories. doi: 10.1080/00223890802248919
[28]
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75
[29]
Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The Satisfaction With Life Scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 137–152. doi: 10.1080/17439760701756946
[30]
Singer, J. A., & Moffitt, K. H. (1991–1992). An experimental investigation of specificity and generality in memory narratives. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 11, 233–257
[31]
Reisenzein, R. (1994). Pleasure-arousal theory and the intensity of emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 525–539. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.67.3.525
[32]
Davis, P. J., Schwartz, G. E. (1987). Repression and the inaccessibility of affective memories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 52(1), 155-162. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.52.1.155
[33]
Erderly, M. H. (2006). The unified theory of repression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 499–551. doi:10.1017/S0140525X06009113
[34]
Kihlstrom, J. F., Harackiewicz, J. M. (2006). The earliest recollection: a new survey. Journal of Personality, Vol 50, Issue 2, pages 134-148. doi: 10.1111/j14676494.1982.tb01019.x
[35]
Rathbone, C. J., Moulin, C. J. A., & Conway, M. A. (2008). Self-centered memories: the reminiscence bump and the self. Memory & Cognition, 36, 1403-1414. doi: 10.10.3758/MC.36.8.1403
[36]
Bruce, D., Wilcox-O’Hearn, L. A., Robinson, J. A., Phillips-Grant, K., Francis, L., & Smith, M. C. (2005). Fragment memories mark the end of childhood amnesia. Memory & Cognition, 33, 567-576. doi: 10.3758/BF03195324
[37]
Hayne, H., & Jack, F. (2011). Childhood amnesia. Wiley interdisciplinary reviews in cognitive science, 2, 136-145
[38]
Rubin, D. C. (2000). The distribution of early childhood memories. Memory, 8, 265-269. doi:10.1080/096582100406810
[39]
Conway MA, Singer J. A. (2011) Reconsidering therapeutic action: loewald, cognitive neuroscience and the integration of memory’s duality. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis 92: 1183–1207. doi: 10.1111/j.17458315.2011.00415.x
[40]
Adler, J. M.; Turner, A. F.; Brookshier, K. M.; Monahan, C.; Walder-Biesanz, I.; Harmeling, L. H.; Albaugh, M.; McAdams, D. P.; Oltmanns, T. F. (2005). Variation in narrative identity is associated with trajectories of mental health over several years. doi: 10.1037/a0038601
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186