Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy as Therapy to Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 6, Issue 6, November 2017, Pages: 166-172
Received: Nov. 27, 2016; Accepted: Jan. 17, 2017; Published: Nov. 28, 2017
Views 2878      Downloads 164
Anas Husam Khalifeh, Department of Nursing, Prince Hamzah Hospital, Ministry of Health, Amman, Jordan
Article Tools
Follow on us
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is psychological trauma that effects on somatic, cognitive-affective, and behavioral. The goals of treatment to persons who have PTSD to decreasing functional impairment, building resilience, reducing symptom severity, preventing relapse, modifying pathogenic fear, preventing the occurrence of comorbid disorders and treating also improving the quality of life of patients. There are many types of psychotherapy, the type which retrieves acknowledgment that applicable treatment is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The purpose of this paper is to provide and highlight the information about risk factors and effect of PTSD in adults and the effectiveness of CBT for adults with PTSD. The literature review showed the risk factors to develop PTSD and when PTSD was noted symptoms that affect life that needs for intervention to decrease these symptoms and to prevent the problem to develop and showed the effectiveness of CBT on adults with PTSD in a different form according to articles that found it.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, Treatment Effectiveness, Adult
To cite this article
Anas Husam Khalifeh, Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy as Therapy to Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, American Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 6, No. 6, 2017, pp. 166-172. doi: 10.11648/j.ajap.20170606.15
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Stein, M. (2014). Pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. [online] Retrieved from: +for+posttraumatic+stress+disorder&selectedTitle=1~136 [Accessed: 23 Mar 2014].
Van der Kolk, B., Pelcovitz, D., Roth, S., Mandel, F., McFarlane, A., & Herman, J. (1996). Dissociation, somatization, and affect dysregulation: the complexity of adaptation of trauma. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(7 Suppl), 83-93.
Da Silva-Mannel, J., Andreoli, S., & Martin, D. (2013). Post-traumatic stress disorder and urban violence: an anthropological study. International Journal of Environmental Research And Public Health, 10 (11), 5333-5348. doi:10.3390/ijerph10115333
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Jonas, D. E., Cusack, K., Forneris, C. A., Wilkins, T. M., Sonis, J., Middleton, J. C., Feltner, C., Meredith, D., Cavanaugh, J., Brownley, K. A. & Others (2013). Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).
Santiago, P. N., Ursano, R. J., Gray, C. L., Pynoos, R. S., Spiegel, D., Lewis-Fernandez, R., &... Fullerton, C. S. (2013). A Systematic Review of PTSD Prevalence and Trajectories in DSM-5 Defined Trauma Exposed Populations: Intentional and Non-Intentional Traumatic Events. Plos One, 8 (4), 1-5. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059236.
Ursano, R., Bell, C., Eth, S., Friedman, M., Norwood, A., Pfefferbaum, B., &... Yager, J. (2004). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 161 (11 Suppl), 3-31.
Roberts, N., Kitchiner, N., Kenardy, J., & Bisson, J. (2009). Multiple session early psychological interventions for the prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3), CD006869. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006869.pub2.
Lu, W., Yanos, P., Gottlieb, J., Duva, S., Silverstein, S., Xie, H., &... Mueser, K. (2012). Use of Fidelity Assessments to Train Clinicians in the CBT for PTSD Program for Clients With Serious Mental Illness. Psychiatric Services, 63 (8), 785-792. doi:10.1176/ 000458.
Ono, Y., Furukawa, T. A., Shimizu, E., Okamoto, Y., Nakagawa, A., Fujisawa, D., &... Nakajima, S. (2011). Current status of research on cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy in Japan. Psychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 65 (2), 121-129. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2010.02182.x.
Beck, J. S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Publications.
Ehlers, A., Grey, N., Wild, J., Stott, R., Liness, S., Deale, A., &... Clark, D. M. (2013). Implementation of Cognitive Therapy for PTSD in routine clinical care: Effectiveness and moderators of outcome in a consecutive sample. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 51 (11), 742-752. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2013.08.006.
British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (2012). What is CBT. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 2 Apr 2014].
Ulmer, C., Edinger, J., & Calhoun, P. (2011). A Multi-Component Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Sleep Disturbance in Veterans with PTSD: A Pilot Study. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7 (1), 57-68.
Centre for CBT Counselling (2014). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 2 Apr 2014].
Canadian Mental Health Association (2004). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) | Canadian Mental Health Association. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 2 Apr 2014].
Kar, N. (2011). Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7167-181. doi:10.2147/NDT.S10389.
Kindt, M., Buck, N., Arntz, A., & Soeter, M. (2007). Perceptual and conceptual processing as predictors of treatment outcome in PTSD. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38 (4), 491-506.
Cahill, S. P., Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., Marshall, R. D., & Nacash, N. (2006). Dissemination of exposure therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19 (5), 597-610. doi:10.1002/jts.20173.
Ehlers, A., Clark, D., Hackmann, A., Grey, N., Liness, S., Wild, J., &... McManus, F. (2010). Intensive cognitive therapy for PTSD: a feasibility study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38 (4), 383-398. doi:10.1017/S1352465810000214.
Xiong, K., Zhang, Y., Qiu, M., Zhang, J., Sang, L., Wang, L., &... Li, M. (2013). Negative emotion regulation in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Plos One, 8 (12), e81957. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081957.
National Institute of Mental Health (2013). NIMH · Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). [online] Retrieved from: ptsd/index.shtml?utm_campaign=Social+%2BMedia&utm_source=Twitter &utm_medium =Main%2BTwitter%2BFeed#part4 [Accessed: 3 Apr 2014].
Saberi, H. R., Abbasian, H. H., Kashani, M., & Esfahani, A. (2013). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neglected Health Concern among Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers. International Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 4 (4), 185-194.
Beck Institute (2012). Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Post Traumatic Stress Dissorder A 3-Day Specialty Workshop (18 CE/CME) | Beck Institute. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 1 Apr 2014].
Bisson, J. (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Occupational Medicine (Oxford, England), 57 (6), 399-403.
Kuwabara, H. (2008). Factors impacting on psychological distress and recovery after the 2004 Niigata–Chuetsu earthquake, Japan: Community-based study. Psychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 62 (5), 503-507.
Ahmad, S., Feder, A., Lee, E. J., Wang, Y., Southwick, S. M., Schlackman, E., &... Charney, D. S. (2010). Earthquake impact in a remote South Asian population: Psychosocial factors and posttraumatic symptoms. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23 (3), 408-412. Doi:10.1002 /jts.20535.
Dell'osso, L., Carmassi, C., Massimetti, G., Conversano, C., Daneluzzo, E., Riccardi, I., &... Rossi, A. (2011). Impact of traumatic loss on post-traumatic spectrum symptoms in high school students after the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake in Italy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 134 (1-3), 59-64.
Ehring, T., Razik, S., & Emmelkamp, P. G. (2011). Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and burnout in Pakistani earthquake recovery workers. Psychiatry Research, 185 (1/2), 161-166. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2009.10.018.
Ribeiro, W., Mari, J., Quintana, M., Dewey, M. E., Evans-Lacko, S., Vilete, L., &... Andreoli, S. (2013). The Impact of Epidemic Violence on the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Plos One, 8 (5), 1-13. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063545.
Wang, L., Zhang, Y., Wang, W., Shi, Z., Shen, J., Li, M., & Xin, Y. (2009). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder among adult survivors three months after the Sichuan earthquake in China. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22 (5), 444-450.
Benedek, D. M., Fullerton, C., & Ursano, R. J. (2007). First Responders: Mental Health Consequences of Natural and Human-Made Disasters for Public Health and Public Safety Workers. Annual Review of Public Health, 28 (1), 55-68. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.28.021406.144037.
Ahmadizadeh, M., Ahmadi, K., Anisi, J. & Ahmadi, A. B. (2013). Assessment of cognitive behavioral therapy on quality of life of patients with chronic war-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 35 (4), p. 341. Doi:10.4103 /0253-7176.122222.
Iversen, A., van Staden, L., Hughes, J., Browne, T., Hull, L., Hall, J., &... Fear, N. (2009). The prevalence of common mental disorders and PTSD in the UK military: using data from a clinical interview-based study. BMC Psychiatry, 968. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-9-68.
Pham, P., Vinck, P., & Stover, E. (2009). Returning home: forced conscription, reintegration, and mental health status of former abductees of the Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda. BMC Psychiatry, 923. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-9-23.
Dohrenwend, B., Turner, J., Turse, N., Adams, B., Koenen, K., & Marshall, R. (2006). The psychological risks of Vietnam for U.S. veterans: a revisit with new data and methods. Science (New York, N. Y.), 313 (5789), 979-982.
Solomon, Z., & Mikulincer, M. (2006). Trajectories of PTSD: a 20-year longitudinal study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163 (4), 659-666.
Peng, K., Shucheng, H., Xunchui, C., & Lan, Y. (2009). Prevalence and risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder: a cross-sectional study among survivors of the Wenchuan 2008 earthquake in China. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 26 (12), 1134-1140. doi:10.1002/da.20612.
O'Connell, M., Kasprow, W., & Rosenheck, R. (2008). Rates and risk factors for homelessness after successful housing in a sample of formerly homeless veterans. Psychiatric Services, 59 (3), 268-275.
Cohen, E., Zerach, G. & Solomon, Z. (2011). The implication of combat-induced stress reaction, PTSD, and attachment in parenting among war veterans. Journal of Family Psychology, 25 (5), p. 688.
Cohen, L., Hien, D., & Batchelder, S. (2008). The impact of cumulative maternal trauma and diagnosis on parenting behavior. Child Maltreatment, 13 (1), 27-38.
Norman, S. B., Stein, M. B. & Davidson, J. R. (2007). Profiling posttraumatic functional impairment. The Journal of Nervous And Mental Disease, 195 (1), pp. 48--53.
Sayers, S. L., Farrow, V. A., Ross, J. & Oslin, D. W. (2009). Family problems among recently returned military veterans referred for a mental health evaluation. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70 (2), p. 163. doi:10.4088/JCP.07m03863.
Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., Nelson, C. B. & Breslau, N. (1999). Epidemiological risk factors for trauma and PTSD. American Psychiatric Association.
Dobry, Y., & Sher, L. (2013). The underexamined association between posttraumatic stress disorder, medical illness and suicidal behavior. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine & Health, 25 (3), 279-282. doi:10.1515/ijamh-2013-0063.
Richardson, J., Pekevski, J., & Elhai, J. (2009). Post-traumatic stress disorder and health problems among medically ill Canadian peacekeeping veterans. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43 (4), 366-372. doi:10.1080/00048670902721061.
Bell, J. B., & Nye, E. C. (2007). Specific Symptoms Predict Suicidal Ideation in Vietnam Combat Veterans with Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Military Medicine, 172 (11), 1144-1147.
Shah, A., Scogin, F., Presnell, A., Morthland, M., & Kaufman, A. V. (2013). Social Workers as Research Psychotherapists in an Investigation of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among Rural Older Adults. Social Work Research, 37 (2), 137-145. doi:10.1093/swr/svt011.
Alvarez, J., McLean, C., Harris, A. S., Rosen, C. S., Ruzek, J. I., & Kimerling, R. (2011). The Comparative Effectiveness of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Male Veterans Treated in a VHA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Residential Rehabilitation Program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79 (5), 590-599.
Balliett, N., & Newman, E. (2009). Handbook of PTSD: Science and Practice, edited by M. J. Friedman, T. M. Keane, and P. A. Resick. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 10 (2), 222-223. doi:10.1080/15299730802607622.
Jean, C., Ivan, N., Sai Nan, Y., Chantal de, M., Françoise, B., Diane, D., &... Yaohua, C. (2008). Randomized Controlled Comparison of Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Rogerian Supportive Therapy in Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A 2-Year Follow-Up. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 77 (2), 101-110.
Sijbrandij, M., Olff, M., Reitsma, J., Carlier, I., de Vries, M., & Gersons, B. (2007). Treatment of acute posttraumatic stress disorder with brief cognitive behavioral therapy: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164 (1), 82-90.
Beck, J., Coffey, S., Foy, D., Keane, T., & Blanchard, E. (2009). Group cognitive behavior therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: an initial randomized pilot study. Behavior Therapy, 40 (1), 82-92. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2008.01.003.
Hinton, D. E., Hofmann, S. G., Pollack, M. H. & Otto, M. W. (2009). Mechanisms of efficacy of CBT for Cambodian refugees with PTSD: Improvement in emotion regulation and orthostatic blood pressure response. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 15 (3), pp. 255--263.
Levitt, J. T., Malta, L. S., Martin, A., Davis, L. & Cloitre, M. (2007). The flexible application of a manualized treatment for PTSD symptoms and functional impairment related to the 9/11 World Trade Center attack. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45 (7), pp. 1419--1433. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2007.01.004.
Lowinger, R. (2012). The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for PTSD in New York City Transit Workers: A Preliminary Evaluation. North American Journal of Psychology, 14 (3), 471-484.
Bisson, J. I., Ehlers, A., Matthews, R., Pilling, S., Richards, D. & Turner, S. (2007). Psychological treatments for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder Systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 190 (2), pp. 97--104.
Kleim, B., Grey, N., Wild, J., Nussbeck, F. W., Stott, R., Hackmann, A., &... Ehlers, A. (2013). Cognitive Change Predicts Symptom Reduction with Cognitive Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81 (3), 383-393.
Gallagher, M., & Resick, P. (2012). Mechanisms of Change in Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Preliminary Evidence for the Differential Effects of Hopelessness and Habituation. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 36 (6), 750-755. doi:10.1007/s10608-011-9423-6.
Surís, A., Link-Malcolm, J., Chard, K., Ahn, C., & North, C. (2013). A randomized clinical trial of cognitive processing therapy for veterans with PTSD related to military sexual trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26 (1), 28-37. doi:10.1002/jts.21765.
Rauch, M., Sheila, A., Eftekhari, A. & Ruzek, J. I. (2012). Review of exposure therapy: A gold standard for PTSD treatment. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 49 (6), 678-687. doi:10.1682/JRRD.2011.08.0152.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186