Religion and Income as Determinant of Well-being Among Employees in Faith-Based and Secular Educational Institutions in Southern Nigeria
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 8, Issue 2, March 2019, Pages: 43-49
Received: May 7, 2019;
Accepted: Jun. 12, 2019;
Published: Jun. 26, 2019
Views 447 Downloads 90
Ngozi Caroline Uwannah, Department of Education, Babcock University, Ilishan, Nigeria
Promise Nkwachi Starris-Onyema, Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Helen Ihuoma Agharanya, Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Onyinyechi Gift Mark, Pre-Degree Unit, Babcock University, Ilishan, Nigeria
This study investigated the influence of religion and income on well-being among employees in faith-based and secular educational institutions in Southern Nigeria. Three hypotheses were formulated and a total of 500 employees from the study area served as participants. The instruments used for data collection included the Demographic Data Inventory (DDI), Well-Being Scale (WBS), and Religion Scale (RS). Data collected were analyzed by means of multiple regression analysis and independent samples t-test. Results revealed significant combined contributions of religion and income to the well-being of employees in faith-based and secular educational institutions in Southern Nigeria (F (2, 497) = 56.467, p < .05), accounting for 25.3% of the variance in their well-being and relative contributions of religion and income to their well-being with income (β = .346; t = 20.491; p < .05) being a stronger predictor of employee well-being than religion (β = .318; t = 18.773; p < .05). There was also a significant difference between employees in faith-based and secular educational institutions in the contribution of religion and income to well-being (t = 9.372, p < .05). It was recommended, among other things, that religious involvement among employees should be encouraged and a steady flow of income in the forms of salaries, allowances, and bonuses should be maintained.
Ngozi Caroline Uwannah,
Promise Nkwachi Starris-Onyema,
Helen Ihuoma Agharanya,
Onyinyechi Gift Mark,
Religion and Income as Determinant of Well-being Among Employees in Faith-Based and Secular Educational Institutions in Southern Nigeria, American Journal of Applied Psychology.
Vol. 8, No. 2,
2019, pp. 43-49.
Onunkun, O. (2017). Development and validation of life well-being scale: A multi-method approach. PhD Thesis. Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye.
Jones, L. K. & Jones, J. W. (2016). Career well-being: defined and strengthened. Retrieved from: https://www.ncda.org/aws/NCDA/pt/sd/news_article/118635/_PARENT/CC_layout_details/false
Rath, T. & Harter, J. (2010). Well-being: The five essential elements. New York: Gallup Press.
National Economic Foundation (2014). Well-being at work: A review of the literature. Retrieved on 21st April 2019 from http://www.nef-consulting.co.uk/well-being-at-work.
Pajevic, I., Sinanovic, O. & Hasanovic, M. (2015). Religiosity and mental health. Psychiatria Danubina, 17 (1-2), 84-89.
Mattis, J. S. & Jagers, R. J. (2011). A relational framework for the study of religiosity and spirituality in the lives of African-Americans. Journal of Community Psychology, 29 (5), 519-539.
Helminiak, D. A. (2001). Treating spiritual issues in secular psychotherapy. Counseling and Values, 45 (3), 163-189.
Faiver, C., Ingersoll, R. E., O’Brien, E., & McNally, C. (2013). Explorations in counseling and spirituality: Philosophical, practical, and personal reflections. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomas Learning.
Ellison, C. G. (2014). Race, ethnicity, religious involvement and domestic violence. Violence against Women, 13 (11), 1094-1112.
Glass, Y. N. (2014). African-American women, psychological well-being, religiosity, and stress. A PhD Thesis. Kent State University College of Education, Health, and Human Services.
Reomberg. S. (2015). Depression hits 90% of Adults, worst in South. CDC Reports. USA Today online magazine.
VanderWeele, T. J. (2017). Religious commitments and human flourishing. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26 (5), 476–487.
Elliot, M. (2009). Religion, health and psychological well-being. Journal of Religion and Health, 49 (2), 149 – 163.
Koenig, H. G. (2014). Religion and well-being in later life. The Gerontologist, 28, 18-28.
Newman, D. B., & Graham, J. (2018). Religion and well-being. In E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay (Eds.), Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers. DOI: nobascholar.com
Dolan, E. W. (2018). Religion can provide a sense of increased purpose in life for people who are socially disconnected. Retrieved from: https://www.psypost.org/2018/08/people-who-are-socially-disconnected-turn-to-religion-to-restore-a-sense-of-purpose-to-their-lives-52082.
Freud, S. (1961). The future of illusion. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Ismail, S. & Desmukh, Z. (2012) religiosity and psychological well-being. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3, 2025.
Lim, C. (2016). Religion, time use, and affective well-being. Sociological Science, 3, 685 – 709.
Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2011). Subjective wellbeing and religiosity in Egyptian college students. Psychological Reports, 108 (1), 54-58. https://doi.org/10.2466/07.17.PR0.108.1.54-58
Adam, Z. (2016). Stress, religious coping and wellbeing in acculturating Muslims. Journal of Muslims Mental Health, 10 (2). Retrieved from: https://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jmmh/10381607.0010.201/--stress-religious-coping-and-wellbeing-in-acculturating?rgn=main;view=fulltext
Ward, C. (2011). The ABCs of acculturation. In D. Matsumoto (ed.), Handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 411-446). New York: Oxford University Press.
Diener, E., Tay, L., & Myers, D. (2011). The religion paradox: If religion makes people happy, why are so many dropping out? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10 (1/6), 1278–1290.
Tosje, T. K., Willem, K. & Waal, J. (2017). The effect of religiosity on life satisfaction in a secularized context: assessing the relevance of believing and belonging. Review of Religious Research, 59 (2), 135 – 155.
Jackson, B. R. & Bergeman, C. S. (2011). How does religion enhance well-being? The role of perceived control. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 3 (2), 149 – 161.
Achor, M., Grine, F., MoudNor, M. R. & MohdYusoff, M. Y. (2014). Measuring religiosity and its effects on personal well-being: A case study of Muslim female academicians in Malaysia. Journal of Religion and Health. Retrieved June 6, 2019 from https://www.academia.edu.o_Measurin...
Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2010). Religiosity, happiness, health and psychopathology in a probability sample of Muslim adolescents. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 10, 571 – 583.
Spencer, N., Madden, G., Purfill, C. & Ewing, J. (2016). Religion and well-being: assessing the evidence. Retrieved from: https://www.theosthinktank.co.uk/research/2016/06/26/religion-and-well-being-assessing-the-evidence
Klocker, N., Trenerry, B., & Webster, K. (2011). How does freedom of religion and belief affect health and wellbeing? Carlton, Australia: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation.
Ngamaba, K. H. (2018). Are religious people happier than the non-religious? The Conversation. Retrieved from: http://theconversation.com/are-religious-people-happier-than-non-religious-people-87394
Nnodim, U. & Albert, C. (2012). The effect of widowhood on the income generation and well- being of rural women in Rivers State, Nigeria. Developing Country Studies, 2 (11), 12–25.
Easterlin, R. A., McVey, L. A., Switek, M., Sawangfa, O., & Zweig, J. S. (2010). The happiness- income paradox revisited. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107 (52), 224–263.
Olugbemi, O. (2018). Belief system, peer pressure, and self-monitoring as determinants of well- being and social adjustment in pastoral and secular schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. PhD Thesis. Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye.