Effects of Separate and Combined Chronic Ingestion of Codeine and Tramadol on Self Grooming Behavior of Male and Female Albino Rats
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 9, Issue 3, May 2020, Pages: 66-76
Received: May 20, 2020;
Accepted: Jun. 1, 2020;
Published: Jun. 17, 2020
Views 175 Downloads 34
Shyngle Kolawole Balogun, Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Peter Oluwafemi Famakinde, Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Deborah Yetunde Adebayo, Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Godwin Atue, Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Rodent self-grooming comprises behaviors devoted to caring of the body surface; presentations that have apparent stereotyped and recurring characteristics which makes rodent grooming a appropriate translational tool for studying the effects of substance abuse in humans. Two opioids, codeine and tramadol, both used for the relief of mild to moderately severe pain but overtime has been abused by people to relieve emotional pain were considered in this study. 54 male and female albino rats (24 females and 30 males) with weight ranging from 120g-180g rats were assigned to three experimental groups (codeine, tramadol and combined group) and one control group. In the study, 6 rats were assigned per group. Rats in the codeine group were orally administered 8mg/kg of codeine while rats in the tramadol group were administered with 20mg/kg of tramadol. Rats in the combined group were administered both 8mg/kg of codeine and 10mg/kg of tramadol. Female rats exposed to chronic intake of Tramadol only (Mean =3.14) were found to significantly displayed more body licking grooming behavior compared to female rats administered Codeine only (Mean = 1.33), combination of Codeine and Tramadol (mean = .67) and the control (mean =1.79) (p < .001). Whereas, male rats in the control (mean = 4.23) significantly displayed more body licking grooming behavior compared to male rats administered Codeine only (mean = 3.01), Tramadol only (mean = 3.35), and the combination of Codeine and Tramadol (mean = 2.49) (p < .05). Also, female rats exposed to chronic intake of Codeine only (mean = 4.92), significantly displayed more daily face washing grooming behavior compared to female rats administered Tramadol only (mean = 3.33), combination of Codeine and Tramadol (mean = 3.29) and the control group (mean = 4.76) (p < .001). Whereas, male rats exposed to chronic intake of Codeine only (mean = 4.92), significantly displayed more daily face washing grooming behavior compared to male rats administered Tramadol only (mean = 3.33), combination of Codeine and Tramadol (mean = 3.29) and the control group (mean = 4.76) (p < .001). The findings demonstrated that chronic administration of opioids, codeine and tramadol affected grooming behaviors i.e. face washing and body licking behaviors which are related to possible deterioration of physical appearance and personal grooming habits in humans. Hence, the study suggests that further exploration to unravel the risks related to the consistent consumption of codeine and tramadol on other body systems be considered.
Shyngle Kolawole Balogun,
Peter Oluwafemi Famakinde,
Deborah Yetunde Adebayo,
Effects of Separate and Combined Chronic Ingestion of Codeine and Tramadol on Self Grooming Behavior of Male and Female Albino Rats, American Journal of Applied Psychology.
Vol. 9, No. 3,
2020, pp. 66-76.
Kalueff, A., LaPorte, J. L. & Bergner, C., (2010). Neurobiology of Grooming Behavior. Cambridge Univ. Press.
Prokop, P., Fancovicova, J. & Fedor, P. (2014) Parasites enhance self-grooming behaviour and information retention in humans. Behavioural Processes 107, 42–46.
Kirsten, Thiago, Bernardi & Maria. (2017). Prenatal lipopolysaccharide induces hypothalamic dopaminergic hypoactivity and autistic-like behaviors: Repetitive self- grooming and stereotypies. Behavioural Brain Research. 331. 10.1016/j.bbr.2017.05.013.
Kalueff, A. V. & Tuohimaa, P., (2005). The grooming analysis algorithm discriminates between different levels of anxiety in rats: potential utility for neurobehavioural stress research. Journal of Neuroscience. Methods 143, 169–177.
Spruijt, B. M. & Gispen, W. H. (1985) Behavioral sequences as an easily quantifiable parameter in experimental studies. Physiological Behaviour. 32, 707–710 (1985).
Kalueff, A. V. & Stewart, A. M., (2015). Modeling neuropsychiatric spectra to empower translational biological psychiatry. Behavioural Brain Research. 276, 1–7.
Silverman, J. L., Tolu, S. S., Barkan, C. L. & Crawley, J. N. (2010). Repetitive self-grooming behavior in the BTBR mouse model of autism is blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP. Neuropsychopharmacology 35, 976–989 (2010).
Veloso A. W. N., Filgueiras G. B., Lorenzo P.& Estanislau C. (2016). Modulation of grooming behavior in rats by different test situations, Psychological Neuroscience. 9 (1) 91–104.
Hudak M. L. (2016). Codeine pharmacogenetics as a proof of concept for pediatric precision medicine. Pediatrics. 138: e20161359. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1359.
Prommer E. (2011). Role of codeine in palliative care. Journal of Opioid Management. 7: 401–406.
Cannon, C. Z., Kissling, G. E., Hoenerhoff, M. J., King-Herbert, A. P. & Blankenship-Paris, T. (2010). Evaluation of dosages and routes of administration of tramadol analgesia in rats using hot-plate and tail-flick tests. Laboratory Animals, 39. (11), 342 – 351.
Yar, M., Onal, A., Urar, M., Dogru, A. & Soykan, N (2003). The antinociceptive effect of tramadol-venlafaxine combination on the paw withdrawal threshold in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Methods Find. Experimental Clinical Pharmacology, 25, 361–365.
Grond, S. & Sablotzki, A. (2004) Clinical pharmacology of tramadol. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 43, 879–923.
Smith HS (2008), Combination opioid analgesics. Pain Physician, 11, 201–214.
Song, C, Berridge, K. C. & Kalueff, A. V. (2016). Stressing' rodent self-grooming for neuroscience research. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 17 (9), 2016, p. 591+. Gale OneFile: Health and Medicine, Accessed 17 May 2020.
Carney, T., Wells, J., Parry, C., McGuinness, P., Harris, R., & Van Hout, M. C. (2018). A comparative analysis of pharmacists' perspectives on codeine use and misuse - a three country survey. Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy, 13 (1), 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-018-0149-2.
Sweileh, W. M., Shraim, N. Y., Zyoud, S. H., & Al-Jabi, S. W. (2016). Worldwide research productivity on tramadol: a bibliometric analysis. SpringerPlus, 5 (1), 1108. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2801-5.