Effects of Separate and Combined Chronic Ingestion of Codeine and Tramadol on Exploratory Learning Behaviour Among Male Albino Rats
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 9, Issue 4, July 2020, Pages: 99-107
Received: Jun. 24, 2020; Accepted: Jul. 9, 2020; Published: Jul. 17, 2020
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Shyngle Kolawole Balogun, Department of Psychology, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Jackson Iheukwumere Osuh, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria
Oluwatosi Olatunde Olotu, Department of Psychology, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
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Tramadol and codeine are opioids known to have effective analgesic effects and potentials for the possible development of tolerance and addiction. The recent increase in the use and abuse of these substances coupled with research evidence implicating the ability of these opioids to readily access opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) is a source of research concern. This study, therefore, examined the effects of chronic exposure to codeine and tramadol on exploratory learning behaviour. Twenty-four (24) male albino rats weighing between 150-200g and 4-6 weeks old, collected from the University of Ibadan Veterinary animal farm were used for this study. They were divided into 4 experimental groups of codeine, tramadol, combined codeine and tramadol and control groups with 6 rats in each group. They were exposed to 8mg/kg of codeine, 20mg/kg of tramadol, combined 8mg/kg of codeine and 20mg/kg of tramadol, and normal saline for the codeine, tramadol, combined codeine and tramadol and control groups respectively for 28 days. The rats were administered with the drugs every other day and observed after each treatment day for exploratory learning behaviour using the T-maze. randomized block ANOVA showed a significant effect of codeine and tramadol on exploratory learning behaviour among male albino rats, f (3,67) = 19.08, p < 0.001, η2=.08. Male albino rats in the codeine treatment group significantly took more time exploring the maze (Mean = 176.64) than combined group (Mean =168.13), tramadol group (Mean =131.10) and control group (Mean =92.48). The mean differences were significant (p<.001). It was concluded that chronic exposure to tramadol and codeine has implications for exploratory learning and memory deficits.
Exploratory Learning Behavior, Codeine, Tramadol, Male Albino Rats
To cite this article
Shyngle Kolawole Balogun, Jackson Iheukwumere Osuh, Oluwatosi Olatunde Olotu, Effects of Separate and Combined Chronic Ingestion of Codeine and Tramadol on Exploratory Learning Behaviour Among Male Albino Rats, American Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 9, No. 4, 2020, pp. 99-107. doi: 10.11648/j.ajap.20200904.13
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