Mediating Effect of Self-Esteem in the Predictive Relationship of Personality and Academic Self-Handicapping
American Journal of Applied Psychology
Volume 4, Issue 3-1, June 2015, Pages: 51-57
Received: Apr. 1, 2015; Accepted: Apr. 2, 2015; Published: Apr. 17, 2015
Views 6112      Downloads 241
Sau Keng Cheng, Faculty of Social Science, Arts and Humanities, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Mei Yui Law, Faculty of Social Science, Arts and Humanities, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Article Tools
Follow on us
This study was undertaken to examine the predictive relationship between personality traits and academic self-handicapping with self-esteem as the mediator. A total of 62 (19 males, 43 females) Psychology undergraduates participated in the study. Respondents completed a questionnaire that measured their personality, academic self-handicapping and self-esteem. Results revealed that academic self-handicapping has significantly been predicted by neutral personality (B = -.25, p<0.05). Self-esteem mediated the relationship between relational personality and academic self-handicapping. The paths from relational personality to the mediator self-esteem, and sequential to academic self-handicapping were momentous (B = .46, p<0.05; B = -.35, p<0.05). This study has provided implication in which certain personality traits are evident in contributing to different levels of self-esteem and successively self-handicapping behaviors among the undergraduates.
Personality, Academic Self-Handicapping, Self-Esteem
To cite this article
Sau Keng Cheng, Mei Yui Law, Mediating Effect of Self-Esteem in the Predictive Relationship of Personality and Academic Self-Handicapping, American Journal of Applied Psychology. Special Issue: Psychology of University Students. Vol. 4, No. 3-1, 2015, pp. 51-57. doi: 10.11648/j.ajap.s.2015040301.19
Milgram, N., & Tenne, R. (2000). Personality correlates of decisional and task avoidant procrastination. European Journal of Personality, 14, 141-156.
Owens, A. M., & Newbegin, I. (2000). Academic procrastination in adolescents in English and Mathematics: Gender and personality variations. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(5), 111-124.
Bobo, J. L., Whitaker, K. C., & Strunk, K. K. (2013). Personality and student self-handicapping: A cross-validated regression approach. Manuscript.
Kinon, M. D., & Murray, C. B. (2007). A profile of the college self-handicapper. Undergraduate Research Journal, 13-17.
Alesi, M., Rappo, G., & Pepi, A. A. (2012). Self-esteem at school and self-handicapping in childhood: Comparison of groups with learning disabilities. Psychological Reports: Disability & Trauma, 111(3), 952-962.
Berglass, S., & Jones, E. E. (1978). Drug choice as a self-handicapping strategy in response to noncontigent success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 405-417.
Schwinger, M., Wirthwein, L., Lemmer, G., & Steinmayr, R. (2014). Academic self-handicapping and achievement: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1, 1-18.
Covington, M. V. (1992). Making the grade: A self-worth perspective on motivation, and school reform. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Martin, A. J., Marsh, H. W., Williamson, A., & Debus, R. L. (2003). Self-handicapping, defensive pessimism and goal orientation: a qualitative study of university students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(3), 617-628.
Kearns, H., Forbes, A., Gardiner, M., & Marshall, K. (2008). When a high distinction isn’t good enough: A review of perfectionism and self-handicapping. The Australian Educational Researcher, 35(3), 21-36.
Ellis, A., & Knaus, W. J. (1977). Overcoming procrastination. New York: Institute for Rational Living.
Hill, M. B., Hill, D. A., Chabot, A. E., & Barrall, J. F. (1978). A survey of college faculty and student procrastination. College Student Journal, 12, 256–262.
Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 8, 454-458.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Academic procrastination and statistics anxiety. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29(1), 3-19.
Strube, M. J. (1986). An analysis of the self-handicapping scale. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 7(3), 211-224.
Greene (2002). High school graduation rates in the United States. Retrieved May 3, 2007, from http://www.manhattan-
Greenberg, J. (1985). Unattainable goal choice as a self-handicapping strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 15, 140-152.
Urdan, T., & Midgley, C. (2001). Academic self-handicapping: What we know, what more there is to learn. Educational Psychology Research, 13, 115-138.
Thomas, T., & Dinnel, D. L. (2007). Is self-worth protection best regarded as intentional self-handicapping behaviour or an outcome of choking under pressure? Educational Psychologist, 27(4), 509–531.
McCrea, S., & Hirt, E. (2001). The role of ability judgments in self-handicapping. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1378–1389.
Zuckerman, M., Kieffer, S. C., & Knee, C. R. (1998). Consequences of self-handicapping: Effects on coping, academic performance, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1619–1628.
Snyder, C. R., Smith, T. W., Augelli, R. W., & Ingram, R. E. (1985). On the self-serving function of social anxiety: Shyness as a self-handicapping strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(4), 970-980.
Coudevylle, G. R., Martin Ginis, K. A., & Famose, J. P. (2008). Determinants of self-handicapping strategies in sport and their effects on athletic performance. Social Behavior and Personality, 36, 391-398.
Murray, C., & Warden, R. (1992). Implications of self-handicapping strategies for academic achievement: A reconceptualization. Journal of Social Psychology, 132, 23-37.
Bailis, D. S. (2001). “Benefits of self-handicapping in sport: A field study of university athletes.” Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 33, 213–23.
Ross, S. R., Canada, K. E., & Rausch. (2002). Self-handicapping and the five factor model of personality: Mediation between neuroticism and conscientiousness. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1173-1184.
Pullmann, H., & Allik, J. (2008) Relations of academic and general self-esteem to school achievement. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 559-564.
Martin, K. A., & Brawley, L. R. (2002). Self-handicapping in physical achievement settings: The contributions of self-esteem and self-efficacy. Psychology Press, 1, 337-351.
Yong, M. S. (1999). The LEONARD Personality Inventory. Petaling Jaya: Nemo Marketing.
Midgley, C., & Urdan, T. (1995). Predictors of middle school students’ use of self-handicapping strategies. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 15, 389-411
Gadbois, S. A., & Sturgeon, R. D. (2011). Academic self-handicapping: Relationships with learning specific and general self-perceptions and academic performance over time. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(2), 207-222.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Felder, R. M., Felder, G. N., & Dietz, E. J. (2002). The effects of personality type on Engineering student performance and attitudes. Journal of Engineering Education, 64(3), 273-286.
Thomas, C. R., & Gadbois, S. A. (2007). Academic self-handicapping: The role of self-concept clarity and students’ learning strategies. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 101-119.
Midgley, C., Arunkumar, R., & Urdan, T. C. (1996). “If I don’t do well tomorrow, there’s a reason”: Predictors of adolescents’ use of academic self-handicapping strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(3), 423-434.
Yildirim, S., & Çam, O. (2002). Nursing academicians’ attitudes towards work life and their personality traits. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 19(8), 709-714.
Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, D. M., & Przybeck, T. R. (1993). Psychobiological model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 975–990.
Debra, A. M., Jonathan, E. T., & Thomas, D. F. (2006) Linking proactive personality and the Big Five to motivation to learn and development activity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 927-935
Zuckerman, M., & Tsai, F. F. (2005). Costs of self-handicapping. Journal of Personality, 73, 411–442.
An, J., An, K., O’Connor, L., & Wexler, S. (2008). Life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived health status among elder Korean women: Focus on living arrangements. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19, 151–160.
Cheng, S. K., & Fatimah, Y. (2010a). Investigating the moderating and mediating effects of dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem on the relationship between social support and depression among late adolescents in Klang Valley Malaysia: A moderated mediation model. International Journal of Education and Information Technologies, 2(4), 73-82.
Cheng, S. K., & Fatimah, Y. (2010b). Roles of dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem in the relationship between social support and depression in late adolescence (pp. 39-44). Proceedings of the WSEAS International Conference on Sociology, Psychology, Philosophy, Penang, Malaysia.
Taylor, R. D., Budescu, M., & McGill, R. K. (2011). Demanding kin relations and depressive symptoms among low-income African American women: Mediating effects of self-esteem and optimism. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(3), 303-308.
Kapikiran, S. (2013). Loneliness and life satisfaction in Turkish early adolescents: The mediating role of self-esteem and social support. Social Indicators Research, 111(2), 617-632.
Zou, J. (2014). Associations between trait emotional intelligence and loneliness in Chinese undergraduate students: Mediating effects of self-esteem and social support. Psychological Reports, 114(3), 880-890.
Tian, L., Liu, B., Huang, S., & Huebner, E. (2013). Perceived social support and school well-being among Chinese early and middle adolescents: The mediational role of self-esteem. Social Indicators Research, 113(3), 991-1008.
Bednar, R. L., Wells, M. G., & Petersen, S. R. (1989). Self-esteem: paradoxes and innovations in clinical theory and practice. Washington: American Psychological Association.
Cohen, S., & Syme, S. L. (1985). Issues in the study and application of social support. In S. Cohen & S. L. Syme (Eds.), Social support and health (pp. 3-22). Orlando, Florida: Academic Press Inc.
Pulford, B. D., Johnson, A., & Awaida, M. (2005). A cross cultural study of predictors of self-handicapping in university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 727-737.
Urdan, T. (2004). Predictors of self-handicapping and achievement: Examining achievement goals, classroom structures, and culture. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 251 – 264.
Beck, B. L., Koons, S. R., & Milgrim, D. L. (2000) Correlates and consequences of behavioral procrastination: the effects of academic procrastination, self-consciousness, self-esteem, and self-handicapping. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(5), 3-13.
Snyder, C. R., & Smith, T. W. (1982). Symptoms as self-handicapping strategies: The virtues of old wine in a new bottle. In G. Weary & H. L. Mirels (Ed.), Integrations of clinical and social psychology (pp. 104-127). New York: Oxford University Press.
Akca, F. (2012). An investigation into the self-handicapping behaviors of undergraduates in terms of academic procrastination, the locus of control and academic success. Journal of Education and Learning, 1(2), 288-297
Hatcher, J., & Hall, L. A. (2009). Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in African American single mothers. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 30(2), 70-7.
Aluja, A., Rolland, J. P., García, L. F., & Rossier, J. (2007). Dimensionality of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and its relationships with the three- and the five-factor personality models. Journal of Personality Assessment, 88(2), 246-9.
Schwinger, M., Lemmer, G., Wirthwein, L., & Steinmayr, R. (2014). Academic Self-Handicapping and Achievement: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(3), 744-761.
Yong, L. M. S. (2003). Norms and technical manual: The Leonard Personality Inventory (LPI). Kuala Lumpur: Leonard Personality Incorporated Sdn Bhd.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186