Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages: 1-6
Received: Jan. 16, 2014;
Published: Feb. 20, 2014
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Tunji Omotoso, Department of History, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, (formerly, Oyo State College of Education), Lanlate, Oyo State, Nigeria
Slavery and slave trade, no doubt contributed to the underdevelopment of Africa. It was a phenomenon which demeaned Blackman’s dignity and laid the foundation of racial inequality between Whiteman and black-skinned man. Slave trade aided the growth and development of the slave-holding nations and retarded the growth and development of Africa. Many scholars have challenged the relationship between Africa and the outside world, which according to them, altered the rate at which Africa’s development was growing prior to slave trade, hence, the calls for reparations as a form of restitution for the injustice perpetrated by Christian Europe and Muslim Arabs who were beneficiaries of slave trade. This paper therefore examines slavery and slave trade with their effects on Africa and includes Arab World as co-culprit with Europe and therefore liable to pay reparations alongside with Europe to Africa. The work carefully examines reparation’s Movements in Africa together with the arguments of anti-reparation advocates. Also, the paper take a review of examples of reparations paid in the past to victims of injustice which acted as a basis for several reparation calls in Africa in the 1990s. The work concludes by making suggestions on how best reparation idea should be championed which according to the writer, is a ‘just course’ that must be pursued to a logical conclusion.
Slavery, Slave Trade and Reparation Movement in Africa, History Research.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2014, pp. 1-6.
J.E. Inikori, "Origin of the Diaspora: The slave trade from Africa", in Tarikh, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1978. P. 2
O. Awolowo, The problems of Africa: The need for ideological re-appraisal, London and Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1977.p. 20
J.C. Anene, "Slavery and Slave trade" in J.C. Anene and G.N. Brown (eds.) Africa in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Ibadan: Ibadan University Press, 1981 pp. 92-109.
J.E. Inikori, Origin of the diaspora: The slave trade from Africa…., p. 2
E.R. Toledano, "Representing the slave’s body in Ottoman society’ In Thomas Wiedeman and Jane Gardner (eds.) Slavery and abolition in Journal of Slave Studies, vol. 23, No. 2, 2002. pp 57-64. See also "Arab slave trade" http.//en.wikipedia.org/wiki. Retrieved 29 July, 2011.
O.K. Amuni, ‘Arab enslavement of Africans: The reparation Caravan must reach Arabia and the Middle East’, in the Special Issue of Journal of CBAAC, 2009, 119.
Arab slave trade, http://enwikipedia.org/wiki op cit. Retrieved 29 July, 2011
J.O Humwick, ‘Black Africans in the Islamic world’ In Tarikh, vol.5, No.4, 1978.pp. 20-40. See also ‘Arab slave trade’. http://en.wikipedia....
O. Awolowo, The problems of Africa: The need for ideological re-appraisal….’, p.21
J.C Anene, ‘Slavery and slave trade’… pp.92-109
A.O Olaniyan, ‘Standing History on its head: Deconstructing Africa’s encounter with the fourth epoch’ in the Special Issue of the Journal of CBAAC, 2009. p. 44
A. Banjo, ‘The rise of global Africa and the question of reparations’ in the Special Issue of Journal of CBAAC, 2009, pp 509-528. See also ‘Reparations for slavery’, http://en.wikipedia/wiki. Retrieved 29 July, 2013.
J.F Ade Ajayi, ‘Towards African Renaissance in the Twenty-First Century’ in Journal of CBAAC. 2001, pp 63-64. See also Jide Owoeye ‘Understanding the reparations movement’ in Nigerian Tribune Newspapers, July 31, 1992, p.5.
For full details on Group of Eminent persons, see A. Banjo, ‘The rise of global Africa and the question of reparations’, in the Special Issue of the Journal of CBAAC, pp.509- 528
‘Reparations to Africa and the Group of Eminent persons’, http://en.wikipedia/wiki’, Retrieved on 29th July, 2013
See The punch newspapers, June 17,2010 .p. 7
‘Reparations for slavery’ http://en.wikipedia/wiki. Retrieved on 29th July, 2013. See also Egbamuno, ‘Europe won’t pay reparations’ in New Nigerian Newspapers, May 6,1991 .p.1
See Africa Recovery, vol.15, No.3, October 2001 .p.8
O. Awolowo, ‘The problems of Africa: The need for ideological re-appraisal’…. p.22
A. Banjo, ‘The rise of global Africa and the question of reparations,’ in the Special Issue of Journal of CBAAC, 2009 op.cit .p. 514. See ‘Reparations to Africa and the Group of Eminent persons’. Retrieved 29 July, 2013
‘Reparations to Africa and the Group of Eminent Persons’ http://en.wikipedia/wiki. Retrieved 29 July, 2013
O. Ugwuanyi, ‘The future of a neglected past: slavery, slave narrative and Africa’s project of self-knowledge:’ in the Special Issue of Journal of CBAAC, 2009,p.85