Increasing Trends Towards Drinking Water Reclamation from Treated Wastewater
World Journal of Applied Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2018, Pages: 1-9
Received: Nov. 10, 2017; Accepted: Nov. 17, 2017; Published: Dec. 5, 2017
Views 2040      Downloads 147
Djamel Ghernaout, Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia; Binladin Research Chair on Quality and Productivity Improvement in the Construction Industry, College of Engineering, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia; Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Blida, Blida, Algeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
All around the world, water supplies are coming under increasing pressure as population growth, climate change, pollution, and changes in land use affect water quantity and quality. To address existing and anticipated water shortages, many communities are working to increase water conservation and are seeking alternative sources of water. Water reuse—the use of treated wastewater, or “reclaimed” water, for beneficial purposes such as drinking, irrigation, or industrial uses—is one option that has helped some communities significantly expand their water supplies. This review summarizes the main findings of the literature. The paper provides an overview of the options and outlook for water reuse in the world, discusses water treatment technologies and potential uses of reclaimed water, and presents a new analysis that compares the risks of drinking reclaimed water to those of drinking water from traditional sources. Involved technologies in wastewater treatment plant for drinking water purpose should be furnished with highly performant methods such as membrane processes (nanofiltration, reverse osmosis) and advanced oxidation processes (H2O2, O3, etc.). Treating efficiently wastewater at its source is the best “barrage” against pollutants diffusion through the nature as chemicals of emerging concern are detected in tap water.
Water Scarcity, Water Reuse (WR), Drinking Water, Human Health, Water/Wastewater Treatment, Environmental Principles
To cite this article
Djamel Ghernaout, Increasing Trends Towards Drinking Water Reclamation from Treated Wastewater, World Journal of Applied Chemistry. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2018, pp. 1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.wjac.20180301.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
D. Ghernaout, Water reuse (WR): The ultimate and vital solution for water supply issues, Intern. J. Sustain. Develop. Res. 3 (2017) 36-46.
N. Nagabhatla, The water security paradigm: A new view for development planning, (accessed on 3/10/17).
R. C. Brears, Future water utility: Wastewater is not waste, (accessed on 3/10/17).
The importance of clean water, (accessed on 4/10/17).
Guidelines for water reuse, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wastewater Management, Office of Water, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/R-12/618, September 2012, (accessed on 6/10/17).
Water Recycling and Reuse: The Environmental Benefits, (accessed on 6/10/17).
A. C. Maizel, C. K. Remucal, The effect of advanced secondary municipal wastewater treatment on the molecular composition of dissolved organic matter, Water Res. 122 (2017) 42-52.
B. Zhang, X. Song, L. D. Nghiem, G. Li, W. Luo, Osmotic membrane bioreactors for wastewater reuse: Performance comparison between cellulose triacetate and polyamide thin film composite membranes, J. Membr. Sci. 539 (2017) 383-391.
M. M. Saggaï, A. Ainouche, M. Nelson, F. Cattin, A. El Amrani, Long-term investigation of constructed wetland wastewater treatment and reuse: Selection of adapted plant species for metaremediation, J. Environ. Manage. 201 (2017) 120-128.
R. Cho, From wastewater to drinking water (4/04/2011), (accessed on 3/10/17).
Understanding water reuse: Potential for expanding the nation’s water supply through reuse of municipal waste water, (accessed on 4/10/17).
W. Henley, The new water technologies that could save the planet (22/07/2013), (accessed on 4/10/17).
Following the flow, an inside look at wastewater treatment, Water Environment Federation, 2009, (accessed on 6/10/17).
S. Naidoo, A. O. Olaniran, Treated wastewater effluent as a source of microbial pollution of surface water resources, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11 (2014) 249-270.
M. A. Al-Obaidi, C. Kara-Zaïtri, I. M. Mujtaba, Removal of phenol from wastewater using spiral-wound reverse osmosis process: Model development based on experiment and simulation, J. Water Process Eng. 18 (2017) 20-28.
Sewage treatment, (accessed on 4/10/17).
Y. Yang, Y. S. Ok, K.-H. Kim, E.E. Kwon, Y.F. Tsang, Occurrences and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in drinking water and water/sewage treatment plants: A review, Sci. Total Environ. 596-597 (2017) 303-320.
New York City's wastewater treatment system, (accessed on 3/10/17).
G. K. Haines, Is this water recycled sewage?, February 2011, (accessed on 6/10/17).
K. Gomes, Wastewater management, Oxford Book Company, Jaipur, India, 2009.
H. Wang, M. Park, H. Liang, S. Wu, I. J. Lopez, W. Ji, G. Li, S. A. Snyder, Reducing ultrafiltration membrane fouling during potable water reuse using pre-ozonation, Water Res. 125 (2017) 42-51.
O. Ivarsson, A. Olander, Risk assessment for South Africa’s first direct wastewater reclamation system for drinking water production, Beaufort West, South Africa, Master of Science Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, 2011.
P. Marais, F. von Dürckheim, Beaufort West Water Reclamation Plant: First direct (toilet-to-tap) water reclamation plant in South Africa, 75th IMESA Conference, Northern Provinces, 63-64, 2011.
N. Abdel-Raouf, A. A. Al-Homaidan, I. B. M. Ibraheem, Microalgae and wastewater treatment, Saudi J. Biolog. Sci. 19 (2012) 257-275.
E. Schroeder, G. Tchobanoglous, H. L. Leverenz, T. Asano, Direct potable reuse: Benefits for public water supplies, agriculture, the environment, and energy conservation, National Water Research Institute, Fountain Valley, California, (accessed on 4/10/17).
Ground water and drinking water, (accessed on 3/10/17).
P. Anderson, N. Denslow, J.E. Drewes, A. Olivieri, D. Schlenk, S. Snyder, Monitoring strategies for chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in recycled water, Recommendations of a Science Advisory Panel, Final Report, State Water Resources Control Board, June 25, 2010, Sacramento, California, 2017; 3(4): 36-46 (accessed on 3/10/17).
S. Hosseinzadeh, G. Bonarrigo, Y. Verheust, P. Roccaro, S. Van Hulle, Water reuse in closed hydroponic systems: Comparison of GAC adsorption, ion exchange and ozonation processes to treat recycled nutrient solution, Aquacult. Eng. 78 (2017) 190-195.
P. Vergine, C. Salerno, A. Libutti, L. Beneduce, G. Gatta, G. Berardi, A. Pollice, Closing the water cycle in the agro-industrial sector by reusing treated wastewater for irrigation, J. Clean. Prod. 164 (2017) 587-596.
S. M. Hocaoglu, Evaluations of on-site wastewater reuse alternatives for hotels through water balance, Resour. Conserv. Recyc. 122 (2017) 43-50.
A. Nikoonahad, M. T. Ghaneian, A. H. Mahvi, M. H. Ehrampoush, A. A. Ebrahimi, M. H. Lotfi, S. Salamehnejad, Application of novel Modified Biological Aerated Filter (MBAF) as a promising post-treatment for water reuse: Modification in configuration and backwashing process, J. Environ. Manage. 203 (2017) 191-199.
A. Margenat, V. Matamoros, S. Díez, N. Cañameras, J. Comas, J. M. Bayona, Occurrence of chemical contaminants in peri-urban agricultural irrigation waters and assessment of their phytotoxicity and crop productivity, Sci. Total Environ. 599-600 (2017) 1140-1148.
G. Fongaro, A. Kunz, M. E. Magri, C. D. Schissi, A. Viancelli, L. S. Philippi, C. R. M. Barardi, Settling and survival profile of enteric pathogens in the swine effluent for water reuse purpose, Intern. J. Hygiene Environ. Health 219 (2016) 883-889.
S. Vajnhandl, J. V. Valh, The status of water reuse in European textile sector, J. Environ. Manage. 141 (2014) 29-35.
J. Chang, W. Lee, S. Yoon, Energy consumptions and associated greenhouse gas emissions in operation phases of urban water reuse systems in Korea, J. Clean. Prod. 141 (2017) 728-736.
I. B. Law, Advanced reuse – from Windhoek to Singapore and beyond, Water, May, 2003.
Reclaimed water, (accessed on 4/10/17).
D. Abdulbaki, M. Al-Hindi, A. Yassine, M. Abou Najm, An optimization model for the allocation of water resources, J. Clean. Prod. 164 (2017) 994-1006.
Z. Chen, Q. Wu, G. Wu, H.-Y. Hu, Centralized water reuse system with multiple applications in urban areas: Lessons from China’s experience, Resour. Conserv. Recyc. 117 (2017) 125-136.
Australian guidelines for water recycling: Managing health and environmental Risks (phase1), Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council Environment Protection and Heritage Council Australian Health Ministers’ Conference, National Water Quality Management Strategy, November 2006, (accessed on 6/10/17).
C. Wang, Y. Hou, Y. Xue, Water resources carrying capacity of wetlands in Beijing: Analysis of policy optimization for urban wetland water resources management, J. Clean. Prod. 161 (2017) 1180-1191.
L. Wang, B. Batchelor, S. D. Pillai, V. S. V. Botlaguduru, Electron beam treatment for potable water reuse: Removal of bromate and perfluorooctanoic acid, Chem. Eng. J. 302 (2016) 58-68.
S. D. Richardson, S. Y. Kimura, Emerging environmental contaminants: Challenges facing our next generation and potential engineering solutions, Environ. Technol. Innov. 8 (2017) 40-56.
E. Hassanzadeh, M. Farhadian, A. Razmjou, N. Askari, An efficient wastewater treatment approach for a real woolen textile industry using a chemical assisted NF membrane process, Environ. Nanotechnol. Monitor. Manage. 8 (2017) 92-96.
M. M. M. Tin, G. Anioke, O. Nakagoe, S. Tanabe, H. Kodamatani, L. D. Nghiem, T. Fujioka, Membrane fouling, chemical cleaning and separation performance assessment of a chlorine-resistant nanofiltration membrane for water recycling applications, Sep. Purif. Technol. 189 (2017) 170-175.
G. W. H. Simons, W. G. M. Bastiaanssen, W. W. Immerzeel, Water reuse in river basins with multiple users: A literature review, J. Hydrol. 522 (2015) 558-571.
B. J. Blunt, A. Singh, L. Wu, M. Gamal El-Din, M. Belosevic, K. B. Tierney, Reuse water: Exposure duration, seasonality and treatment affect tissue responses in a model fish, Sci. Total Environ. 607-608 (2017) 1117-1125.
O. M. Rodriguez-Narvaez, J. M. Peralta-Hernandez, A. Goonetilleke, E. R. Bandala, Treatment technologies for emerging contaminants in water: A review, Chem. Eng. J. 323 (2017) 361-380.
T. L. S. Silva, S. Morales-Torres, S. Castro-Silva, J. L. Figueiredo, A. M. T. Silva, An overview on exploration and environmental impact of unconventional gas sources and treatment options for produced water, J. Environ. Manage. 200 (2017) 511-529.
J. G. Herman, C. E. Scruggs, B. M. Thomson, The costs of direct and indirect potable water reuse in a medium-sized arid inland community, J. Water Process Eng. 19 (2017) 239-247.
Q. K. Tran, D. Jassby, K. A. Schwabe, The implications of drought and water conservation on the reuse of municipal wastewater: Recognizing impacts and identifying mitigation possibilities, Water Res. 124 (2017) 472-481.
A. Ding, H. Liang, G. Li, I. Szivak, J. Traber, W. Pronk, A low energy gravity-driven membrane bioreactor system for grey water treatment: Permeability and removal performance of organics, J. Membr. Sci. 542 (2017) 408-417.
G. Almeida, J. Vieira, A. S. Marques, A. Kiperstok, A. Cardoso, Estimating the potential water reuse based on fuzzy reasoning, J. Environ. Manage. 128 (2013) 883-892.
C.-M. Lam, L. Leng, P.-C. Chen, P.-H. Lee, S.-C. Hsu, Eco-efficiency analysis of non-potable water systems in domestic buildings, Appl. Energ. 202 (2017) 293-307.
A. Giwa, A. Dindi, An investigation of the feasibility of proposed solutions for water sustainability and security in water-stressed environment, J. Clean. Prod. 165 (2017) 721-733.
S. Bakopoulou, A. Kungolos, Investigation of wastewater reuse potential in Thessaly region, Greece, Desalination 248 (2009) 1029-1038.
S. Jia, Y. Han, H. Zhuang, H. Han, K. Li, Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from coal gasification wastewater RO concentrate and microorganisms succession in a MBR, Bioresource Technol. 241 (2017) 517-524.
B. G. Choi, M. Zhan, K. Shin, S. Lee, S. Hong, Pilot-scale evaluation of FO-RO osmotic dilution process for treating wastewater from coal-fired power plant integrated with seawater desalination, J. Membr. Sci. 540 (2017) 78-87.
A. Bellver-Domingo, R. Fuentes, F. Hernández-Sancho, Shadow prices of emerging pollutants in wastewater treatment plants: Quantification of environmental externalities, J. Environ. Manage. 203 (2017) 439-447.
I. Vázquez-Rowe, R. Kahhat, Y. Lorenzo-Toja, Natural disasters and climate change call for the urgent decentralization of urban water systems, Sci. Total Environ. 605-606 (2017) 246-250.
B. M. Pecson, S. C. Triolo, S. Olivieri, E. C. Chen, A. N. Pisarenko, C.-C. Yang, A. Olivieri, C. N. Haas, R. S. Trussell, R. R. Trussell, Reliability of pathogen control in direct potable reuse: Performance evaluation and QMRA of a full-scale 1 MGD advanced treatment train, Water Res. 122 (2017) 258-268.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186