Decolorization of BF Cibacete Blue (CB) and Red Solophenyle 3BL (RS) Using Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Chloride
World Journal of Applied Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages: 32-40
Received: Apr. 2, 2018;
Accepted: Apr. 17, 2018;
Published: May 15, 2018
Views 383 Downloads 10
Djamel Ghernaout, Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia; Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Blida, Blida, Algeria
Chahrazad Laribi, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Blida, Blida, Algeria
Abdulaziz Alghamdi, Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia
Badia Ghernaout, Laboratory of Mechanics (LME), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Laghouat, Laghouat, Algeria
Noureddine Ait Messaoudene, Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia
Mohamed Aichouni, Industrial Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia
Coagulation process is largely applied for dye removal from textile wastewater treatment. This research aims to focus on implied mechanisms through coagulation of such wastewater. In this work, jar tests are performed to assess the coagulation process as a technique to treat synthetic solutions containing two textile dyes: BF cibacete blue (CB) and red solophenyle 3BL (RS). The effects of operational parameters such as coagulant type (FeCl3 and Al2 (SO4)3. 18H2O (alum)) and dose, initial pH, and dye concentration are studied. For a fixed 15 mg/L concentration of the two dyes, the FeCl3 optimal doses are found to 80 and 20 mg/L for RS and CB with removal rates of 65 and 89%, respectively. Regarding alum, discoloration is achieved at 44 and 77% for CB and RS with optimal doses of 80 and 40 mg/L, respectively. Similar efficiency trends are also obtained for a 50 mg/L concentration of the two dyes. The involved coagulation mechanisms are: charge neutralization followed by precipitation of the insoluble dye-coagulant complexes, and their adsorption into the Al or Fe hydroxides. It would be interesting to follow a real effluent application on the textile industry possibly containing the two dyes tested in this work.
Noureddine Ait Messaoudene,
Decolorization of BF Cibacete Blue (CB) and Red Solophenyle 3BL (RS) Using Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Chloride, World Journal of Applied Chemistry.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2018, pp. 32-40.
S. Irki, D. Ghernaout, M. W. Naceur, Decolourization of Methyl Orange (MO) by Electrocoagulation (EC) using iron electrodes under a magnetic field (MF), Desalin. Water Treat. 79 (2017) 368-377.
D. Ghernaout, A. I. Al-Ghonamy, N. Ait Messaoudene, M. Aichouni, M. W. Naceur, F. Z. Benchelighem, A. Boucherit, Electrocoagulation of Direct Brown 2 (DB) and BF Cibacete Blue (CB) using aluminum electrodes, Sep. Sci. Technol. 50 (2015) 1413-1420.
D. Ghernaout, A. I. Al-Ghonamy, S. Irki, A. Grini, M. W. Naceur, N. Ait Messaoudene, M. Aichouni, Decolourization of bromophenol blue by electrocoagulation process, Trends Chem. Eng. 15 (2014) 29-39.
D. Ghernaout, A. I. Al-Ghonamy, M. W. Naceur, N. Ait Messaoudene, M. Aichouni, Influence of operating parameters on electrocoagulation of C. I. disperse yellow 3, J. Electrochem. Sci. Eng. 4 (2014) 271-283.
D. Ghernaout, S. Irki, A. Boucherit, Removal of Cu2+ and Cd2+, and humic acid and phenol by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes, Desalin. Water Treat. 52 (2014) 3256-3270.
T.-H. Kim, C. Park, E.-B. Shin, S. Kim, Decolorization of disperse and reactive dye solutions using ferric chloride, Desalination 161 (2004) 49-58.
M. Zarei, A. Niaei, D. Salari, A. R. Khataee, Removal of four dyes from aqueous medium by the peroxi-coagulation method using carbon nanotube–PTFE cathode and neural network modeling, J. Electroanal. Chem. 639 (2010) 167-174.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, A. Kellil, Natural organic matter removal and enhanced coagulation as a link between coagulation and electrocoagulation, Desalin. Water Treat. 2 (2009) 209-228.
B. Ghernaout, D. Ghernaout, A. Saiba, Algae and cyanotoxins removal by coagulation/flocculation: A review, Desalin. Water Treat. 20 (2010) 133-143.
D. Ghernaout, M. W. Naceur, B. Ghernaout, A review of electrocoagulation as a promising coagulation process for improved organic and inorganic matters removal by electrophoresis and electroflotation, Desalin. Water Treat. 28 (2011) 287-320.
D. Ghernaout, The hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio vs. dissolved organics removal by coagulation - A review, J. King Saud Univ. – Sci. 26 (2014) 169-180.
D. Ghernaout, S. Moulay, N. Ait Messaoudene, M. Aichouni, M. W. Naceur, A. Boucherit, Coagulation and chlorination of NOM and algae in water treatment: A review, Intern. J. Environ. Monit. Analy. 2 (2014) 23-34.
D. Ghernaout, A. I. Al-Ghonamy, A. Boucherit, B. Ghernaout, M. W. Naceur, N. Ait Messaoudene, M. Aichouni, A. A. Mahjoubi, N. A. Elboughdiri, Brownian motion and coagulation process, Am. J. Environ. Prot. 4 (2015) 1-15.
D. Ghernaout, A. I. Al-Ghonamy, M. W. Naceur, A. Boucherit, N. A. Messaoudene, M. Aichouni, A. A. Mahjoubi, N. A. Elboughdiri, Controlling coagulation process: From Zeta potential to streaming potential, Am. J. Environ. Prot. 4 (2015) 16-27.
D. Ghernaout, A. Boucherit, Review of coagulation’s rapid mixing for NOM removal, J. Res. Develop. Chem., 2015, DOI: 10.5171/2015.926518.
D. Ghernaout, A. Badis, G. Braikia, N. Matâam, M. Fekhar, B. Ghernaout, A. Boucherit, Enhanced coagulation for algae removal in a typical Algeria water treatment plant, Environ. Eng. Manag. J. (Article in Press). 2017.
D. Ghernaout, M. W. Naceur and A. Aouabed, On the dependence of chlorine by-products generated species formation of the electrode material and applied charge during electrochemical water treatment, Desalination 270 (2011) 9-22.
D. Ghernaout, Advanced oxidation phenomena in electrocoagulation process: A myth or a reality?, Desalin. Water Treat. 51 (2013) 7536-7554.
H. Issa Hamoud, G. Finqueneisel, B. Azambre, Removal of binary dyes mixtures with opposite and similar charges by adsorption, coagulation/flocculation and catalytic oxidation in the presence of CeO2/H2O2 Fenton-like system, J. Environ. Manage. 195 (2017) 195-207.
Z. Cheng, B. Yang, Q. Chen, W. Ji, Z. Shen, Characteristics and difference of oxidation and coagulation mechanisms for the removal of organic compounds by quantum parameter analysis, Chem. Eng. J. 332 (2018) 351-360.
J. Ooi, L. Y. Lee, B. Y. Z. Hiew, S. Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, S. S. Lim, S. Gan, Assessment of fish scales waste as a low cost and eco-friendly adsorbent for removal of an azo dye: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies, Bioresource Technol. 245 (2017) 656-664.
I. Belbachir, B. Makhoukhi, Adsorption of Bezathren dyes onto sodic bentonite from aqueous solutions, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. 75 (2017) 105-111.
A. Becaria, D. K. Lahiri, S. C. Bondy, D. Chen, A. Hamadeh, H. Li, R. Taylor, A. Campbell, Aluminum and copper in drinking water enhance inflammatory or oxidative events specifically in the brain, J. Neuroimmunol. 176 (2006) 16-23.
J. R. Walton, A longitudinal study of rats chronically exposed to aluminium at human dietary levels, Neurosci. Lett. 412 (2007) 29-33.
C. Gourier-Fréry, N. Fréry, Aluminium, EMC Toxicol. Pathol. 1 (2004) 79-95.
T. P. Flaten, Aluminium as a risk factor in Alzheimer's disease, with emphasis on drinking water, Brain Res. Bull. 55 (2001) 187-196.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, M. W. Naceur, Embodying the chemical water treatment in the green chemistry – A review, Desalination 271 (2011) 1-10.
D. Ghernaout, The best available technology of water/wastewater treatment and seawater desalination: Simulation of the open sky seawater distillation, Green Sustain. Chem. 3 (2013) 68-88.
D. Ghernaout, The Holy Koran Revelation: Iron is a “sent down” metal, Am. J. Environ. Prot. 6 (2017) 101-104.
D. Ghernaout, M. W. Naceur, Ferrate (VI): In situ generation and water treatment – A review, Desalin. Water Treat. 30 (2011) 319-332.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, On the controversial effect of sodium sulphate as supporting electrolyte on electrocoagulation process: A review, Desalin. Water Treat. 27 (2011) 243-254.
D. Ghernaout, A. Mariche, B. Ghernaout, A. Kellil, Electromagnetic treatment-bi-electrocoagulation of humic acid in continuous mode using response surface method for its optimization and application on two surface waters, Desalin. Water Treat. 22 (2010) 311-329.
D. Belhout, D. Ghernaout, S. Djezzar-Douakh, A. Kellil, Electrocoagulation of Ghrib dam’s water (Algeria) in batch using iron electrodes, Desalin. Water Treat. 16 (2010) 1-9.
A. Saiba, S. Kourdali, B. Ghernaout, D. Ghernaout, In Desalination, from 1987 to 2009, the birth of a new seawater pretreatment process: Electrocoagulation-an overview, Desalin. Water Treat. 16 (2010) 201-217.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, A. Boucherit, M. W. Naceur, A. Khelifa, A. Kellil, Study on mechanism of electrocoagulation with iron electrodes in idealised conditions and electrocoagulation of humic acids solution in batch using aluminium electrodes, Desalin. Water Treat. 8 (2009) 91-99.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, A. Boucherit, Effect of pH on electrocoagulation of bentonite suspensions in batch using iron electrodes, J. Disper. Sci. Technol. 29 (2008) 1272-1275.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, A. Saiba, A. Boucherit, A. Kellil, Removal of humic acids by continuous electromagnetic treatment followed by electrocoagulation in batch using aluminium electrodes, Desalination 239 (2009) 295-308.
D. Ghernaout, A. Badis, B. Ghernaout, A. Kellil, Application of electrocoagulation in Escherichia Coli culture and two surface waters, Desalination 219 (2008) 118-125.
J. H. Montgomery, Water treatment principles and design, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1985.
D. Ghernaout, Water treatment chlorination: An updated mechanistic insight review, Chem. Res. J. 2 (2017) 125-138.
D. Ghernaout, Environmental principles in the Holy Koran and the Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, Am. J. Environ. Prot. 6 (2017) 75-79.
A. Anouzla, Y. Abrouki, S. Souabi, M. Safi, H. Rhbal, Optimization and modeling of decolorization and COD reduction of reactive dye solutions by coagulation processes with SIWW’s coagulant (Ch. 12), 279-288, The Role of Colloidal Systems in Environmental Protection, Elsevier B. V., Amsterdam, 2014.
A. Hamidi, S. Alias, M. Nordin, A. Faridah, A. H. Asaari, M. S. Zahari, Colour removal from landfill leachate by coagulation and flocculation processes, Bioresource Technol. 98 (2007) 218-220.
P. K. Holt, G. W. Barton, C. A. Mitchell, Electrocoagulation as a wastewater treatment. 3rd Annual Australian Environmental Engineering Research Event, Castlemaine, Victoria, Australia, November, 23-26, 1999.
C.-Y. Lin, C.-C. Chiang, M.-L. T. Nguyen, C.-H. Lay, Enhancement of fermentative biohydrogen production from textile desizing wastewater via coagulation-pretreatment, Int. J. Hydrogen Energ. 42 (2017) 12153-12158.
C. Allegre, M. Maisseu, F. Charbit, P. Moulin, Coagulation–flocculation–decantation of dye house effluents: concentrated effluents, J. Hazard. Mater. B116 (2004) 57-64.
M. Riera-Torres, C. Gutiérrez-Bouzán, M. Crespi, Combination of coagulation–flocculation and nanofiltration techniques for dye removal and water reuse in textile effluents, Desalination 252 (2010) 53-59.
B. Merzouk, B. Gourich, K. Madani, Ch. Vial, A. Sekki, Removal of a disperse red dye from synthetic wastewater by chemical coagulation and continuous electrocoagulation. A comparative study, Desalination 272 (2011) 246-253.
S. Achour, N. Guesbaya, Coagulation-Floculation par le sulfate d’aluminium de composés organiques phénoliques et de substances humiques, Larhyss J. 4 (2005) 153-168.
A. Gürses, M. Yalçin, C. Doğar, Electrocoagulation of some reactive dyes: a statistical investigation of some electrochemical variables, Waste Manag. 22 (2002) 491-499.
F. Edeline, L’épuration physico-chimique des eaux, Editions Cebedoc, Liège, 1996.
M. Khayet, A. Y. Zahrim, N. Hilal, Modelling and optimization of coagulation of highly concentrated industrial grade leather dye by response surface methodology, Chem. Eng. J. 167 (2011) 77-83.
E. Guibal, J. Roussy, Coagulation and flocculation of dye-containing solutions using a biopolymer (Chitosan), React. Funct. Polym. 67 (2007) 33-42.
M. Javaid Mughal, R. Saeed, M. Naeem, M. Aleem Ahmed, A. Yasmien, Q. Siddiqui, M. Iqbal, J. Saudi Chem. Soc. 17 (2013) 23-28.
E. Klimiuk, A. Filipkowska, A. Korzeniowska, Effects of pH and coagulant dosage on effectiveness of coagulation of reactive dyes from model wastewater by polyaluminium chloride (PAC), Polish J. Environ. Studies 8 (1999) 73-79.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, Sweep flocculation as a second form of charge neutralisation – A review, Desalin. Water Treat. 44 (2012) 15-28.
F. R. Furlan, L. G. de Melo da Silva, A. F. Morgado, A. A. U. de Souza, S. M. A. G. U. de Souza, Removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using combined coagulation/flocculation and adsorption on activated carbon, Resour. Conserv. Recy. 54 (2010) 283-290.
A. Shirafkan, S. M. Nowee, N. Ramezanian, M. M. Etemadi, Hybrid coagulation/ozonation treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater using ferric chloride, polyaluminum chloride and ozone, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 13 (2016) 1443-1452.
S. Sadri Moghaddam, M. R. Alavi Moghaddam, M. Arami, Coagulation/flocculation process for dye removal using sludge from water treatment plant: Optimization through response surface methodology, J. Hazard. Mater. 175 (2010) 651-657.
 J.-W. Lee, S.-P. Choi, R. Thiruvenkatachari, W.-G. Shim, H. Moon, Submerged microfiltration membrane coupled with alum coagulation/powdered activated carbon adsorption for complete decolorization of reactive dyes, Water Res. 40 (2006) 435-444.
J.-W. Lee, S.-P. Choi, R. Thiruvenkatachari, W.-G. Shim, H. Moon, Evaluation of the performance of adsorption and coagulation processes for the maximum removal of reactive dyes, Dyes Pigments 69 (2006) 196-203.
H. S. Peavy, D. R. Rowe, G. Tchobanoglous, Environmental Engineering, McGraw-Hill International Edition, New Delhi, 1985.
Y. Zhou, Z. Liang, Y. Wang, Decolorization and COD removal of secondary yeast wastewater effluents by coagulation using aluminum sulfate, Desalination 225 (2008) 301-311.