Total and Chemical Speciation Analyses of Potential Toxic Metals in Refuse Dumpsite Soils
World Journal of Applied Chemistry
Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages: 19-29
Received: Aug. 28, 2019; Accepted: Sep. 16, 2019; Published: Sep. 26, 2019
Views 361      Downloads 79
Odunayo Timothy Ore, Chemistry Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Godswill Ehimengbale Akhigbe, Chemistry Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Abiodun Odunlami Adegunwa, Pure and Applied Chemistry Department, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria
Emmanuel Oladimeji Olalekan, Chemistry Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Dayo Abiodun Ayeni, Chemistry Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Olamide Mary Omirin, Chemistry Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Philomena Ebunoluwa Adebiyi, Environmental Health Department, Medical and Health Services, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Potential toxic metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe) concentrations in two selected refuse dumpsites (Apollo and Tonkere) soils in Ile-Ife, Nigeria were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry to assess the pollution status of the areas. Control soils were also collected from areas with little or no anthropogenic inputs. Potential toxic metal concentrations in the refuse dumpsite soils were considerably higher than those of the control. Geo-accumulation index results indicated that the refuse dumpsites have unpolluted to moderate pollution for all the investigated metals, while pollution index results (> 1) suggested that the refuse dumpsites were contaminated with all the analyzed metals. Enrichment factor results indicated no enrichment for all the investigated metals. This might be connected with recent regular clearing of the dumpsites. Chemical speciation results showed relatively high bioavailability and mobility potential with a large proportion retained in the labile fraction. The study concluded that the studied dumpsites were still impacted with the analyzed potential toxic metals whose concentrations exceeded those of the control samples and standard permissible limits and that long-term exposure to these bioavailable metals might pose intrinsic hazards to human health. It is therefore recommended that clearing of the dumpsites should be consistent.
AAS, Dumpsite, Potential Toxic Metal, Pollution, Speciation
To cite this article
Odunayo Timothy Ore, Godswill Ehimengbale Akhigbe, Abiodun Odunlami Adegunwa, Emmanuel Oladimeji Olalekan, Dayo Abiodun Ayeni, Olamide Mary Omirin, Philomena Ebunoluwa Adebiyi, Total and Chemical Speciation Analyses of Potential Toxic Metals in Refuse Dumpsite Soils, World Journal of Applied Chemistry. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2019, pp. 19-29. doi: 10.11648/j.wjac.20190402.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bishop P. L. 2000. Pollution Prevention: Fundamentals and Practice. McGraw-Hill, Companies Inc.
Silberberg, M. S. 2000. Chemistry: the molecular nature of matter and change. McGgraw hill higher education, 2nd Edition. pp. 1000-1035.
Esakku, S., Palanivelu, K. and Joseph, K. 2003. Assessment of potential toxic metals in a municipal solid waste dumpsite, Workshop on sustainable landfill Management. 3-5 December, Chennai, India. pp. 139-145.
Iriruaga, E. T. 2012. Solid waste Management in Nigeria. 15 November, 2012. Retrieved 10 October, 2018.
Abankwa V., Grimard A., Somer K. and Kuria F. 2009. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT). Accessed; December, 2011.
Adebiyi, F. M. and Ayeni, O. A. 2010. Evaluation of phytoaccumulation of selected metals from petroleum products impacted-soils by Cynodon dactylon plants using AAS/AES analytical techniques. Analytical Letters. 43: 1879-1888.
Osakwe, S. A. and Okolie, L. P. 2015. Distribution of different fractions of Iron, Zinc, Chromium, Lead and Nickel in Soils around Petrol filling stations in selected Areas of Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 19 (4): 706-716.
Oyewole, F. G. and Adebiyi, F. M. 2017. Total and speciation analyses of potential toxic metals in the sand fraction of Nigerian oil sands for human and ecological risk assessment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal. 23 (8): 2046-2068.
Salbu, B., Krekling, T. and Oughton, D. H. 1998. Characterization of radioactive particles in the environment. Analyst, 123: 843-849.
Adebiyi, F. M., Asubiojo, I. O. and Ajayi, T. R. 2008. Elemental characterization of Nigerian oil sands by TXRF spectrometry. Petroleum Science and Technology. 25 (1), 29–39.
Buccolieri, A., Buccolieri, G. and Cardellicchio, N. 2006. Potential toxic Metals in Marine Sediments of Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy). Marine chemistry. 99: 227-235.
Barbieri, M. 2016. The Importance of Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) to Evaluate the Soil Contamination. Journal of Geology and Geophysics. 5: 237.
Sucharovà, J., Suchara, I., Hola, M., Marikova, S., Reimann, C., Boyd, R., Filzmoser, P. and Englmaier, P. 2012. Top-/Bottom-Soil Ratios and Enrichment Factors: What Do They Really Show? Applied Geochemistry. 27: 138-145.
Abu-Kukati, Y. 2001. Potential toxic metal distribution and speciation in sediments from Ziqlab Dam-Jordan. Geological Engineering, 25 (1), 33-40.
Asubiojo O. I. and F. M. Adebiyi 2011. Effects of Bitumen Deposit on Soil Physico-Chemical Characteristics. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 20: 2, 142-162.
Odat, S. 2015. Application of Geoaccumulation Index and Enrichment Factors on the Assessment of Potential toxic Metal Pollution along Irbid/zarqa Highway-Jordan. Journal of Applied Sciences. 15: 1318-1321.
Ololade, I. A. 2014. An Assessment of Potential toxic-Metal Contamination in Soils within Auto-Mechanic Workshops Using Enrichment and Contamination Factors with Geoaccumulation Indexes. Journal of Environmental protection. 5: 970-982.
Chapman, P. M. and Wang, F. 2001. Assessing Sediment Contamination in Estuaries. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20: 3-22.
Adebiyi, P. E. and Oloukoi, G. 2018. The study of potential toxic metals in dumpsites using surface soils and Talinum triangulae (water leaves) as environmental pollution indicators. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology. 2 (2).
Olayiwola, O. A. and Onwordi, C. T. 2015. Environmental Fate of Potential toxic Metals in Soil of Ido-Osun Waste Dump Site, Osogbo, Osun, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 3 (1): 1-4.
Nwajei, G. E, Iwegbue, C. M. A. and Okafor, M. I. 2007. Potential toxic metals in surface soils under waste dumps in Onitsha, Nigeria. Journal of Biological Sciences. 7 (2): 405-408.
Segarra, M. J., Prejo, R., Wilson, J., Bacon, J. and Santos-Echeandia, J. 2008. Metal speciation in surface sediments of the Vigo Ria (NW Iberian Peninsula). Scientia Marina. 72 (1): 119-126.
Uba, S., Uzairu, A. Sallau, M. S., Abba, H., Joshua, O. O. 2013. Metals bioavailability in the leachates from dumpsites in Zaria Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Science. 5 (7): 131-141.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186