Women and Peace Initiative in Igbo Traditional Society: A Viable Option for Peace Building in Modern Africa
Humanities and Social Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2013, Pages: 58-69
Received: Jun. 28, 2013; Published: Jul. 10, 2013
Views 3186      Downloads 476
Author
Okoro, Kingsley N., Department of Philosophy and Religion Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Abakaliki—Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Article Tools
PDF
Follow on us
Abstract
Peace, the pristine aspiration of humanity seems to have evaded the contemporary age. Therefore, bloody conflicts have ravaged human race from dateless past to the present. However, humanity has attempted to put in place certain socio-political mechanism to grapple with this insidious phenomenon. In spite of the various mechanisms, war has continued to persist with greater intensity. Experts attributed its persistence to human greed, personal enterprise and violation of certain social capitals. Africa which had track record of peaceful estate in her traditional history is now synonymous with conflict in modern history. Thus, she is described as one of the most volatile part of the world. Consequently, world communities have become concerned on how to stop or at least reduce it to the barest. Therefore; many have come up with propositions as to the cause of conflict in this region and consequently suggested steps to stopping it. However, this work has taken historical, socio-political and cultural approach to the study of conflict in this region. It found that the recent upsurge of conflict in Africa is predicated on the fact that certain social values and norms have been violated. The basic institution sustaining the social structure have been neglected and abandoned. This paper also discovered that one major cause of the upsurge of conflict in Africa is the dislodging of the women from the public sphere and her abandonment of her divine role.. We therefore underscore that if peace must return to Africa, women must return to their legitimate social role. We used the Igbo example to justify our assumption.
Keywords
Women, Peace Initiatives, Igbo, Society, Option, Modern Africa
To cite this article
Okoro, Kingsley N., Women and Peace Initiative in Igbo Traditional Society: A Viable Option for Peace Building in Modern Africa, Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2013, pp. 58-69. doi: 10.11648/j.hss.20130101.17
References
[1]
Ademola, Faleti.S. (2007).’Theories of Social Conflict’ Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa: Shedrack Gaya Best (ed) Ibadan: Spectrum Books.
[2]
Achebe, Chinua, (1958). Things Fall Apart: London Hemeinam Educational Publication.
[3]
Aeschylum, E.A. Seven Against Thebes. Translated by Murray Gibert (1980). London: George Allen.
[4]
Afigbo Adiele, E. (1972). The Warrant Chiefs: Indirect Rules in Southeastern Nigeria 1891-1929, New York: Humanities Press
[5]
Anyakaoha, Elizabeth .U. (2008). Extending the Frontier of Age-long Powers of Women in Southeast Nigeria for Grassroots Development. Unclassified material downloaded from www/http/html/pdf. Nigeria org. 28.09.08
[6]
Anyanwu, U.D. (1993) ‘Gender Question in Igbo Politics’ in Anyanwu, U.D, and Aguwa, J.C.U. (eds) The Igbo and Traditional of politics. Enugu, Fourth Dimension.
[7]
Banton, R.H. (1982). Christian Attitudes towards War and Peace: A Historical Survey and Critical Evaluation, Nashoule: Abingdon.
[8]
Castilina, (1972). The Fragraments, California, Mary knees.
[9]
Chinweizu, (1991). Anatomy of Female Power, Lagos: Peru..
[10]
Clattopadhayay, Kamladeri,(2008). Women: The Comrade, www Gawhiwomen http/Edu org. retrieved 29.09.08
[11]
Collier, J.F. (1974) "Women in Politics" in Rosaldo, M.Z and Langhene (eds) (1974) Women, Culture And Society. Stanford: University Press.
[12]
Dine, G.U. (1983). Traditional Leadership as service among the Igbo of Nigeria: An Anthropological Approach. Rome: Pontifical University Laterance.
[13]
Ejimofor, Lambeth .U. (1981). Dynamics of Igbo Democracy: A Behavioural Analysis of Igbo Politics in Aguiniyi Clan. Ibadan: IVP.
[14]
Ene .M.O.(2007) The women in Igbo Culture. New Jeresy. Dortam Books
[15]
Francis, David.J. ‘Peace and conflict church: An African Overview of Basic Concepts’ In Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa Edited Gaya Best, Ibadan: Spectrum.
[16]
Fredl, E. (1975). Women and Men: An Anthropological View New York , Holt, linehast and Winston.
[17]
Fukuyama, Francis, (1999). The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order. London: Profile.
[18]
Gerhand Kettel. (1938).The Concept of Peace in Old Testament, Nashville.: Noston Press
[19]
Germane, A.W (1999). ‘A Historical Commentary’ In Theicydicies I. Oxford: OUP.
[20]
Green, M.M. (1964). Ibo Village Affairs (2nd Ed). London: Frank Cass
[21]
Ibeanu, Oke. (2007). ‘Conceptualizing Peace’ Introduction to Peace And Conflict Studies In West Africa: Edited By Shedrack Gaya Best: Ibadan: Spectrum Books.
[22]
Ifemesca, Chieka, (1979). Traditional Humane Living among the Igbo: A Historical Perspective Enugu: Fourth Dimeneum.
[23]
Jeanne (1993). Woman and War. London: Zed Books.
[24]
Karame,Kari (2004)(Ed). Gender and Peace Building in Africa. Norway: Norsk.
[25]
Khan, Kanlana (2008). Peace and Religion (Unclassified Material) Retrieved From Www/Global Accmstitude/Http, May 13, 2008.
[26]
Kusa, Daiyo .O. (2007). ‘Gender, Peace and Conflict in Africa’ .Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies In West Africa: Edited By Shedrack Gaya Best: Ibadan: Spectrum.
[27]
Lihamba .A. (2003) Women’s Peace-Building And Conflict Resolution Skills, Morogoro Region -Tanzania Paris : UNESCO
[28]
Mathey, M.J. Dejean T, Deballe, M, Soplo, R, Koulaning A. Moga, J, (2003). The Role Played by Women of central Africa Republic in the Prevention and Resolution of Conflicts. Paris :UNESCO.
[29]
Myre, John .L. (1927). The Political Idea of Greek. New York: Colorodo
[30]
Mutunya, Elizabeth (2008). ‘Gender and Peace Process in Africa’ In Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa (Ed) Shedrack Gaya Best (2008) Ibadan. Spectrum.
[31]
Ngongo-Mbede, Valerie,(2003). The Traditional Mediation of Conflicts by Woman in Cameroon, France: UNESCO
[32]
Ntahobani, Josephine and Ndayiziga, Basilissa (2003). The Role of Burundi Women In Peaceful Settlement Of Conflicts. Paris: UNESCO.
[33]
Nwachukwu, C.B. (1993) "Universal Properties of Political System: The Case of the Igbo Anyanwu’, U.D. And Aguwa, JCU (Eds) The Igbo And The Traditional Politics. Enugu. Fourth Dimension.
[34]
Nwakanma, Obi (2008). Sex, Women and (HU)Woman Rights. Igbo Women Have A Special Place in Our Culture’ The Newspaper, Honston, Nigeria Central Com The Black Business Journal. Vol. 10 No 15. (1-2).
[35]
Nwoge, Miriam A.C. (2008). Role of Women in Peace Building and Conflict Resolution In African Traditional Societies: A Selective Review. Naurobi, Kemyatta University.
[36]
Nwoye, Agatha M.C. (2009) Role of Women in Peace-Building And Conflict Resolution In African Traditional Societies: A Selective Review: Nainobi Kenyatta University Press.
[37]
Odoemene, Akachi (2008) "(Re) Venturing Into The Public Sphere: A Historical Sociology Of "August Meeting" Among Igbo Women In Nigeria" Codesria: 12th General Assembly On Govering Africa Public Sphere 07-11 December 2008. Yaoundé Cameroon.
[38]
Ohivca, B. Bexley J. Warmark K. (Eds) (1995) Arm To Fight, Arm To Protect, Women Speak Out About Conflict. London Panos
[39]
Olsson, Rouise (2001), ‘Gender Mainstreaming in Practice: The United Nation Traditional Assistance Group in Nambia" In Olsson and Tryggested (Ed)London. Frank Cass.
[40]
Okoro, Kingsley.N.(2008). "Alternative Feminism for Nigerian Women. The Gandhian Option" In African Journal of Religion. Culture and Society Vol. 2, No 1, June, 2008 (172-193)
[41]
(2008)"Religion". A Vital Instrument for Global Peace" Contemporary Issues In Philosophical and Religious Discourse (Eds) Okoro, Kingsley And Kalu, Maculay.A. Port Harcourt Publimedia.
[42]
Report (2002) Women, Peace And Security, Submitted By The UN Secretary General Pursuant To Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000)
[43]
Uchendu, P.K. (1972). The Warrant Chiefs: Indirect Rules in Southeastern Nigeria 1891-1929. New York: Humanities Press.
[44]
Uka, E.M. "Living Religion: Challenge Of Checking Violence Occasioned By Economic Globalization" A Paper Presented At The 9th World Conference Of International Association For History Of Religion (IAHR) Held At Tokyo-Japan-March 23-30. 2005 (15-34)
[45]
Weeks, Dully (1992). The Eight Essential Steps to Conflict Resolution. New York: Pitman The Richer.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186