Strategic planning: Between Shaping Organization Action and Emerging from Organizational Action
A wide range of knowledge and concepts on strategic planning has been exploring and analyzing substantially and qualitatively in indicating the contemporary understandings of the nature and the philosophy of strategic planning. These understandings based on the contemporary literatures and experts that investigating and personal reflection on the topic, conceptually and theoretically. Once understandings of the nature and the philosophy of strategic planning are formed, it is hoped that, they can be difficult to shake. They take on a paradigmatic quality, which shape our attitudes, way of thinking and philosophy of life strongly, especially the organizations. Of these, this paper comes to sum up that strategic planning, on the one hand, is mostly shaping the organization actions and on the other hand, in some extent, strategic planning is emerging from organizational actions. This is reasonable, because strategic planning bring with treasuries of characteristics or perspectives, which are designing vision, mission, strategic goals, values and principles for the future of the organizations.
Nikolaus Salo, M. Ed,
Strategic planning: Between Shaping Organization Action and Emerging from Organizational Action, Humanities and Social Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 3,
2014, pp. 81-86.
Albrecht, M. H. (2001). International HRM: Managing Diversity in Workplace. Oxford: Blackwell Business.
Beal, B. (2003). Teamwork—The Key to Staff Development. Career Development International, 8(5), 235-240.
Bell, L. (2003). Strategic Planning in Education: A Critical Perspective. In Davies, B. and West-Burnham, J. (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Leadership and Management, pp. 93-99. London: Pearson Education Ltd.
Bichard, M. (2000). Creativity, Leadership, and Change. Public Money and Management, April-June: 41-46.
Boisot, M. (1995). Preparing for Turbulence. In B. Garratt (Ed.), Developing Strategic Thought. London: McGraw-Hill.
Bryson, J. M. (1995). Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publisher.
Carnall, C. A. (2003). Managing Change in Organizations, (4th Edn.). UK: Pearson Education Limited.
Davies, B. and Davies, B. (2003). Strategy and Planning in Schools. In Davies, B. and West-Burnham, J. (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Leadership and Management, pp. 79-92. London: Pearson Education Ltd.
Davies, B. (2003). Introduction. In B. Davies and J. West-Burnham (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Leadership and Management (pp. 77-78). London: Pearson Education Ltd.
Doppelt, B. (2003). Leading Change toward Sustainability: A Change-Management Guide for Business, Government and Civil Society. UK: Greenleaf Publishing Ltd.
Enslin, P. (2006). Democracy, Social Justice and Education: Feminist Strategies in a Globalizing World. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 38(1), 57-67.
Fidler, B. (1996). Strategic Planning for School Improvement. London: Pitman Publishing.
Glaister, K. W. and Falshaw, J. R. (1999). Strategic Planning: Still Going Strong? Long Range Planning, 21(1), 107-116.
Greenley, G. E. (1994). Strategic Planning and Company Performance: An Appraisal of the Empirical Evidence. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 10(4), 383-396.
Hafsi, T. and Thomas, H. (1985). Planning Under Uncertainty and Ambiguous Conditions: The Case of Air France. Working Paper, 32-37.
Hax, A. C. and Majluf, N. S. (1996). The Strategic Concept and Process, a Pragmatic Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Katsioloudes, M. I. (1995). Strategic Planning for the Non-Profit Sector: Theory & Cases (2nd Edn.). New York: McGraw Hill.
Katsioloudes, M. I. (2002). Global Strategic Planning: Cultural Perspectives for Profit and Nonprofit Organizations. USA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Keller, R. T. (1992). Transformational Leadership and the Performance of Research and Development Project Groups. Journal of Management, 18, 489-501.
Kennie, T. (2002). Strategic and Operational Planning. In S. Ketteridge, S. Marshall & H. Fry (Eds.), The Effective Academic: A Handbook for Enhanced Academic Practice (pp. 72-89). London: Kogan Page.
Knutson, J. and Alexander, L. (1988). Workbook: Strategic Planning. New York: American Management Associations Extension Institute.
Kryder, L. G. (1997). Strategic Planning: How “Bifocal Vision” and a Living Document Create Success. Technical Communication, 44(4), 382-389.
Leavy, B. and Wilson, D. (1994). Strategy and Leadership. London: Routledge.
Lerner, A. L. (1999). A Strategic Planning Primer for Higher Education. College of Business Administration and Economics, California State University. [Online] www.sonoma.edu/aa/ Planning/Strategic_Planning_Primer.pdf [Retrieved June 15, 2007].
Mendonca, M. and Kanungo, R.. N. (2007). Ethical Leadership. Maidenhead, Berk: Open University Press.
Mintzberg, H. (1978). Patterns in Strategy Formulation. Management Science, 934-948.
Mintzberg, H. (1994a). The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning: Reconceiving Roles for Planning, Plans, Planners. New York, NY: Macmillan, Inc.
Mintzberg, H. (1994b). Rethinking Strategic Planning Part I: Pitfalls and Fallacies. Long Range Planning, 27(3), 12-21.
Mintzberg, H. (1994c). Rethinking Strategic Planning Part II: Roles for Planners. Long Range Planning, 27(3), 22-30.
Nankervis, A., Compton, R. and Baird, M. (2002) (4th Edn.). Human Resource Management: Strategies and Processes. Melbourne: Thomson.
Pearce, J. A., Freeman, E. B. and Robinson, R. B. (1987). The Tenuous Link between Formal Strategic Planning and Financial Performance. Academy of Management Review, 12(4), 658-675. Pettigrew, A. (1973). The Politics of Organizational Decision Making. London: Tavistock.
Samson, D. and Daft, R. L. (2003). Management. Australia: Thomson.
Schueber, M. (2003). Information Management Strategy Formation in Northern Development NGOs. Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM), University of Manchester, UK. [Online] http://idpm.man.ac.uk/wp/di/index.htm [Retrieved February 9, 2007].
Schueber, M. (2005). Concept Paper for Organizational Ambition and Capacity Development of VECO-Indonesia through a Guided OD/KM Process. VECO-Indonesia.
Van der Linde, C. (2001). Strategic Quality Planning for Teachers in the New Millennium. Education, 121(3), 535-538.
Walker, J. W. (2001). Are we Global Yet? In M. H. Albrecht (Ed.), International HRM: Managing Diversity in Workplace. Oxford: Blackwell Business.
Young, I. M. (2000). Inclusion and De-mocracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zack, M. H. (2002). Developing a Knowledge Strategy. In Chun, W. C. and Bontis, N. (Eds.), The Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge (pp. 255-276). Oxford: Oxford University Press.