The Perception of Religious Institutions on the Freedom of Expression and the Broadcasting Proclamation
Humanities and Social Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2015, Pages: 1-17
Received: Dec. 19, 2014;
Accepted: Jan. 4, 2015;
Published: Jan. 19, 2015
Views 3101 Downloads 311
Gebru Kahsay Kiflu, English language and literature Department, College of Social Science and Humanities, Adigrat University, P.Box:50, Adigrat, Ethiopia
This study investigated the perception of religious organizations on the freedom of expression - Article 29 (2) and the broadcasting proclamation No. 533 Article 23/2007 in focus. The researcher employed qualitative methodology with individual in-depth interviews and focus group discussions as data gathering tools. The theoretical framework employed was political economy theory of mass communication. Despite the fact that the Freedom of the Press has been granted as per Article 29 sub article 2 of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Broadcasting Authority has not allowed religious institutions to own broadcast stations for religious purposes. This research is designed to address the issue of this phenomenon, that is, the religious institutions have not been able to secure the permission to broadcast as per the provisions of the Constitution. Two core points raised on the perception of religious organizations on freedom of expression Article 29 sub article 2 and the broadcasting proclamation No. 533 Article 23/2007. The side of the religious leaders argued that they didn’t observe the two articles as adversaries, “though the proclamation seems contradictory to that of the constitutional right given, religion is Parisian and if it is allowed there may be accusing one to the other. Thus, since it is done for the safety of the nation and for the peaceful coexistence of the general public, they didn’t oppose the restriction that is similar to the government reasons. While, with significant exceptions of the practitioners in the religious institutions on the other hand; argued that the main objective of religion is to promote positive values to the society, why it is considered as a threat. And they oppose on the blanket prohibition as it is a barrier for the right to the freedom of religious broadcasting.
Gebru Kahsay Kiflu,
The Perception of Religious Institutions on the Freedom of Expression and the Broadcasting Proclamation, Humanities and Social Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2015, pp. 1-17.
African Media Barometer: The first home grown analyses of the media landscape in Africa. (2010). Fesmedia Africa, Windhoek, Namibia: Published by Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) www.fesmedia.org.
Article XIX (2002). Access to Airwaves: Principles on Freedom of Expression and Broadcast Regulation. Internet available at http://www.article19.org/ pdfs/ standards/accessairwaves.pdf
Berhane Zikarge (2009). The scopes and limitations of freedom of religion under the FDRE Constitution: Survey Contemporary Challenges and Problems. AAU: unpublished
Boxter, L,.A., Babbie, E. (2004). The Basics of Communication Research, Canada. Wadsworth Thomson learning Ltd.
Boyd, O. et al (1995). Approaches to Media: A Reader, 1st ed. Oxford University Press Inc.
Deacon, D. et al (1999). Researching Communication: A Practical Guide to Methods in Media and Cultural Analysis. London: Arnold Publication
Downing, J. and Mohammadi, A. (1995). Questioning the Media: A Critical Introduction. 2nd ed. Sage publications
Everethe, E. et al (1984). Basis Issues in Mass Communication: New York, London. Macmillan Publishing Company
Freedom of expression in Ethiopia: the jurisprudential dearth. Accessed in 10,10,2011 from (http://www.ajol.info/index)
Freedom of Expression, Assembly and Association Best Practice, available at http://www.thecommonwealth.org/Shared_ASP_Files/UploadedFiles/%7BE8112AA0-1743-4F8B-BE0F-53CADB6318AE%7D_Freedom%20of%20Expression.pdf
Grossbeng, L. et al (1998). Media Making: Mass Media in a popular culture. London. New Delhi. Sage Publication Inc
Guidelines for Broadcasting Regulation Accessed on April 5 from http://portal.unesco.org/ci/fr/file_download.php/1c9ed59b01da3180e33cd1b35a5e3908Guidelines+for+Broadcasting+Regulation.pdf
Human Rights Watch (1998). The Limits of Tolerance: Freedom of Expression and the Public Debate in Chile. New York, Washington, London. Brussles.
Hyden, G. et al (2002). Media and Democracy in Africa, 1st ed. New Brunswick, New Jersey :Transaction Publishers,.
Johnston, D. (2003). Encyclopedia of International Media Communications, Volume 2. New York, USA. Colombia University
Ka Soma, F. (2000). The Press and Multiparty Politics in Africa, University of Tempere.
Maykut, P. and Morehouse, R. (2004). Beginning Qualitative Research: A Philosophic and Practical Guide. 9th ed. Great Britain.
McQuail, D. (2000). Mass Communication Theory. 4th ed. London: Sage Publication.
Media law (2010). Hand book series: http/.www.america.gov.
Media Legislation in Africa: A comparative legal survey Accessed in10, 10,2011from http://fesmedia.org/fileadmin/filesfesmedia.org/Berger__Media_Legislation_in_ Africa.pdf
Meron Berhane (2006). The Ethiopia Media law with particular reference to the Broadcasting. Proclamation No. 178/1999 AAU: unpublished.
Mohammed Selman.(2009). Editorial Independence in the Ethiopian private media house. AAU, unpublished.
Negarit Gazette: The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (1995) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Nyamnjoh, B, F. (2005). Africa’s Media: Democracy and the Politics of Belonging. Pretoria: UNISA press
Organization for African Unity (OAU). (1986). African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (Internet) available at http://www.hrcr.org/docs/Banjul/afrh3.html
Overbeck, W. (1985). Major Principles of Media Law, 2nd ed. CBS College publishing
Political Economy Communication: A Critique. http://www.philgraham/ mme%20 chapter_final. Pdf 24, 11, 2010 accessed.
Potter, D. (2006). Hand book of independent journalism. US department of state. http/.www.america.gov.
Religious Broadcastiang in the Middle East (2010). Islamic Christian and Jewish Channels: Programmes and Discourages, Cambridge Arab Media Project (AMD) and the prince Alwaleed Bintalal Center of Islamic Studies, University of Cambridge.
Richard,W. Lynn, T. (2000). Introducing communication Theory: Analysis and Application. Mayfiled Publications Company. London. Toronto.
Robertson,G. et al.(2002). Media Law, 4th ed. London: Penguim Books Strand.
Schultze, Q.(1990). American Evangelicals and the Mass Media. 4thed. United States: Zondeivan Corporation,.
Siebrt, F. Peterson, T.Schrumm, W. (1984). Four Theories of the press. Chicago. USA: University of Illinois press.
Street, J. (2001). Mass Media, Politics and Democracy: 1st ed. New York: Palgrave publishers limited.
Tamrat, T.(2008). Christian Radio Broad Casting in Ethiopian Changing political context: Case study of Yemisirach Dimts Radio. AAU un published.
The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (2002). Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression in Africa. (Internet) available at http:// www.achpr.org/english/info/charter/en.html
Tomaselli, K. and Dunn, H. (2001). Media, Democracy and Renewal in Southern Africa. 1st ed. International Academic Publishers Ltd.
Tunstal J. and Palmer, M. (1991). Media Moguls, 1st ed. London, New York: Rutledge
United Nations (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights Adopted and proclaimed by General assembly Resolution 217 (III) of December 10, 1948 (Internet) available at http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html
United Nations (1976). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights United Nations document March 23 1976 (Internet) available at http://www. hrweb. org/ legal/cpr.html
Wag man, R. (1991). The First Amendment Book, 1st ed. World Almani a print of Pharos Books a Scrips Haward Company.
XIX, Article 19: The legal frame work for freedom of expression in Ethiopia (2002). retrieved from (http.//www.article19.org) in 10,10,2011
XIX, Article 19, Access to Air Waves: Principals on Freedom of Expression and Broadcast Regulation, accessed from www. Article19. Org/date files /standards/access air waves, pdf.