The eastern part of Kurdistan Province, the region under Study, includes cities such as Bijar, Qorveh and Dehgolan. This region is a high plain which differs from western Kurdistan topographically. Recently, this region has been archaeologically surveyed by the Iranian Center for Archaeological Research (ICAR) successively. As a result, various ancient sites, dated back from prehistoric times to the Islamic period were identified among which 16 are attributed to the "Yanik culture". The main aim of the present study is to analyze the settlement pattern of Yanikian sites in the eastern Kurdistan and their relationship with natural environment. In this study, parameters such as altitude, distance to the river, size of the sites, slope and so on have been taken into account and studied via GIS software. The study shows that Yanikian settlements have been centered in southern part of the region and they are rare in the northern parts.
Settlement Pattern of Yanik Culture in Eastern Kurdistan, Iran, International Journal of Archaeology.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2015, pp. 8-16.
Batiuk, S and M. Rothman. 2007. Early Trans-Caucasian cultures and their neighbors: unraveling migration, trade, and assimilation. Expedition 49 (1): 7-17.
Kohl, Ph. L. 2009. Origins homelands and migrations: situating the Kura-Araxes early Trans-Caucasian Culture within the history of Bronze Age Eurasia. Tel Aviv 36: 241-265.
Kuftin, B. 1940. K voprosu O rannykh stadiyakh Bronzovoy kultury na territorii Kavkaza. Kratkiye Soobshcheniya o Dokladakh i Polevykh Issledovaniyakh Instituta Istorii. 8: 5–35.
Burney, C. and D. Lang. 1971. The Peoples of the Hills. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.
Baiburtyan, E. 1938. Kul’tovyj ochag iz raskopok Shengavitskogo Poselenija v 1936–1937. Vestnik Drenej Istorii. 4: 255–259.
Burney, C. 1958. Eastern Anatolia in the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. Anatolian Studies 8: 157-209.
Braidwood, R and L. Braidwood. 1960. Excavations in the plain of Antioch, Volume 1: the earliest assemblages, phases A-J. Oriental Institute Publications 61. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Kelly-Buccellati, M. 1980. The outer Fertile Crescent culture, north eastern connections of Syria and Palestine in the third millennium B.C. Ugarit-Forschungen, 11, 413–430.
Amiran, R. 1965. Yanik Tepe, Shengavit, and the Khirbet Kerak Ware. Anatolian Studies 15: 165-167.
Alizadeh K. 2012. A study on the migration theory in archaeology and to extend Kura- Araxes culture in ancient near east Archaeology and History. 25: 48-65.
Burney, C. 1961a. Excavation at Yanik tepe north-west Iran. Iraq 23.
Burney, C. 1961b. Circular buildings found at Yanik Tepe, in north - west Iran. Antiquity 35: 237-40.
Burney, C. 1962. Excavation at Yanik Tepe Azarbaidjan 1961. Iraq 24: 134-152.
Burney, C. 1964. Excavations at Yanik Tepe, Azerbaijan, 1962 : third preliminary Report . Iraq 26: 54-61.
Burney, C. 1972. Excavation at Haftvan Tepe 1969: Second preliminary Report. Iran 10: 127-42.
Burney, C. 1973. Excavation at Haftvan Tepe 1971: Third preliminary report". Iran 11:153-72.
Burney, C. 1974. Report on the 1973 season of excavation at Haftvan Tepeh. In: F. Bagherzadeh (ed.), Proceedings of the first Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran, 1973. 102-11. Tehran: Iranian Center for Archaeological Research.
Burney, C. 1975. Excavation at Haftvan Tepe 1973: fourth preliminary report. Iran 13: 149-64.
Burney, C. 1976. Haftvan Tappeh: Iran 14: 157-58.
Young, T. 1966. Survey in western Iran 1961. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 25: 228-239.
Henrickson, R. 1986. A regional perspective on Godin III Cultural Development in Central Western Iran. Iran 24: 1-43
Young, T. 1975. Kangavar Valley survey . Iran 13: 191-193
Mason, R and L. Copper. 1999. Grog, petrology and early Trans-Caucasian at Godin Tepe. Iran 37: pp.25-31.
Mohammadifar, Y., A. Motarjem and H. Torabzadeh Khorasani. 2009. Tepe Pissa: new investigations at a Kura-Araxes site in central western Iran. Antiquity 83/320.
Khaksar, A. 2006. The report of exploration in order to determine bounds of Gurab Tepe (Malayer). Hamadan’s cultural Heritage Records, Unpublished.
Baba Piri, J. 2005. The Report of stratigraphy of Tepe pari in Malayer. Hamadan cultural Heritage Records. Unpublished.
Tala'i, H. 2008, Bornze Age of Iran. Tehran: SAMT Press.
Fazeli Nashli. H. 2006. Archaeology of Qazvin plain from 6 to 2 millennia B.C. Tehran: Tehran University Press.
A’lai, A, 2006. A descriptive report of archaeological survey and identification on Abhar Rud basin. Payam-e Bastanshenas. 3/6: 17-42.
Naqshineh A. S 2011. A preliminary report on the first season of excavations on Aliyourt Tepe Saeen Galeh- Zanjan province. Payam-e Bastanshenas 8/15: 91-110.
Zare’i, M. A, S. M. Sayed Mohammad, 2010, Studying and identifying Khodabandeh city (Qidar). second season 1388 -89, Zanjan’s cultural Heritage Records, Unpublished.
Motarjem A. 2007. A study and analyze of the settlement pattern of early Bronze Age in the plains around Alvand mountain Hamedan. Ph.D. Dissertation University of Tehran Unpublished.
Whallon, R and S. Kantman. 1969. Early Bronze Age development in the Keban Reservoir, east-central Turkey. Current Anthropology 10/1: 128-133.
Mellaart, J. 1963. Early cultures of the south Anatolian Plateau, II: The late Chalcolithic and early Bronze Ages in the Konya Plain. Anatolian Studies 13: 199-236.
Smith, A., R. Badalyan., P. Avetisyan, and M. Zardaryan. 2004. Early complex societies in southern Caucasia: a preliminary report on the 2002. Investigations by Project ArAGATS on the Tsakahovit Plain, Republic of Armenia. American Journal of Archaeology 108: 1-41.
Zuckerman, S., A. Esudrib and A. Weinbergerb. 2009. Production centers and distribution patterns of Khirbet Kerak Ware in the Southern Levant: A Typological and Petrographic Perspective. Tel Aviv 36: 135–180.
Iserlis, M. 2009. Khirbet Kerak Ware at Bet Yerah : Segregation and Integration through Technology. Tel Aviv 36: 181–195.
Amiran, R. 1968. Chronological problems of the early Bronze Age early Bronze I-II: The city of Arad Early Bronze III: The Khirbet Kerak Ware. American Journal of Archaeology72/4: 316-318.
Sa'ed Mucheshi, A., K. Niknami. M. Mashkor. H. Fazli-Nashli. B. Firouzmandi. 2011. Relative and absolute chronology of the Kalanan Tepe Bijar: Site of the middle Chalcolithic period In Western Iran, Namehy-e Bastansheansi 1: 31-56.
Sa'ed Mucheshi, A., K. Niknami, Z. Karimi, E. Azizi, A. Behnia, 2011. The settlement pattern of the sites related to middle Chalcolithic period of the edges of Talwar’s rivers (Dehgolan and Qorveh cities). Payam-e Bastanshenas 8 /16: 17 – 34.
Sa'ed Mucheshi, A. 2013. The Talvar and Qezel Owzan River’s basin in Chalcolithic: According to archaeological studies on Bijar. Namehy-e Bastansheansi 5: 25-50.
Swiny, S. 1975. Survey in Northwest Iran, 1971. East and West 25/1-2: 77-96.
Azizi E. 1999. The report of survey and identification of ancient traces of eastern and western Chahardoli district of Qorveh. Kurdistan’s cultural Heritage Records, Unpublished.
Azizi E. 2002. The report of archaeological survey on Bijar. Kurdistan’s cultural Heritage Records, Unpublished.
Elyasvand, E. 2006. An Archaeological survey on Siltan and Khorkhoreh districts in Bijar in 1385. Kurdistan’s Cultural Heritage Records, Unpublished.
Elyasvand, E. 2007. An Archaeological survey on Toqamin and Siah Mansoor districts in Bijar in 1386. Kurdistan’s Cultural Heritage Records, Unpublished.
Elyasvand, E. 2008. An archaeological survey on Korani and Gorgin districts in Bijar in 1387. Kurdistan’s cultural Heritage Records, Unpublished.
Karimi Z. 2007. The report of the archaeological study on southern Eaylan village Dehgolan district Qorveh city (Dehgolan) in 1386. Kurdistan’s cultural Heritage Records, Unpublished.
Behnia, A. 2009. An archaeological survey on Qorveh city (Sirish Abad district). Kurdistan’s cultural Heritage Records, Unpublished.
A'layi Taleqani, M. 2004. Iran’s geomorphology. Tehran: Qoumes Press.
Najafi S. Y. 1990. The General geography of Kurdistan province. Tehran: Amir Kabir Press.
Mahmoodi F. 1973. Regional geography of Qorveh-Bijar-Divandareh. Geographical Reports 9. The Geographical Institution of University of Tehran Unpublished.
Dechaufeur, P. 1978. Pedology generalities (Sand application and categorization). Tehran: Tehran University Press (Persian translation).
Rajabioun, Z. 2014. A study on the settlement patterns of Yanik culture in Eastern Kurdistan. M.A dissertation in Archaeology, sistan and Baluchestan University.
Sa'ed Moucheshi, A. 2011. A study of the settlement pattern of sites related to Chalcolithic in eastern Kurdistan (Qezel Owzan and Talvar basin). Ph.D. thesis, Tehran University, Unpublished.
Motarjem A. 2011 Early Bronze Age in eastern central Zagros-Iran. Archaeological Studies 2/4: 33-52.
Van Zeist, W. 1967. Late quaternary vegetation history of western Iran. Rev. Paleobot. Palynol. 2: 301-311.
Mortensen, P. 1963 Early village occupation: excavation at Tepe Guran, Luristsn. Acta Archaeologica 34: 110-21.
Abdi, K. 2003. The Early development of pastoralism in the central Zagros Mountains. Journal of World Prehistory, Vol. 17, No. 4.