Identification of Groundwater's Type in Sarabium Archaeological Site – Atfiyah – Egypt and Its Microbiological Effect
International Journal of Archaeology
Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2016, Pages: 67-77
Received: Jun. 19, 2016;
Accepted: Jul. 30, 2016;
Published: Aug. 29, 2016
Views 4130 Downloads 127
Rabea Radi Abdel Kader, Restoration Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Abdel Hamid Kafafy, Restoration Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Shaimaa Sayed Mohamed El-Sayed, Restoration Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Follow on us
Sarabium archaeological site locates in Atfiyah center – Egypt, it belonged to 26th dynasty, the site suffers from the groundwater which affects badly on the deterioration of the building materials there, many microorganisms grow on lime stone carved coffins and ruins, they produce organic compounds which react with lime stone and turn to soluble salts, this is called biological weathering of the lime stone. This research will include the identification of the ground water's type and the microorganisms grown, their visible effect.
Sarabium Archaeological Site, Ground Water, Microorganisms, Limestone
To cite this article
Rabea Radi Abdel Kader,
Abdel Hamid Kafafy,
Shaimaa Sayed Mohamed El-Sayed,
Identification of Groundwater's Type in Sarabium Archaeological Site – Atfiyah – Egypt and Its Microbiological Effect, International Journal of Archaeology.
Vol. 4, No. 5,
2016, pp. 67-77.
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Mission égypto-française d’Atfih, Atfih, la nécropole des vaches sacrées (mission 2008), Institut d' Egyptologie Francois Daumas, Universite Paul Valery, France, 2008.
Nick A. Cutler, Heather A. Viles, Samin Ahmad, Stephen McCabe, Bernard J. Smith, Algal ‘greening’ and the conservation of stone heritage structures, Science of the Total Environment 442, (2013), P: 153.
Shaimaa Sayed Mohamed El-Sayed Mahgoub, "Evaluation of Wild and Domestic Trees and Plants Hazards, their Role in the Deterioration of Archaeological Buildings Ruins, Methods of Treatment and Assessment of these Hazards Applied on a Chosen Historical Building and Site", PhD thesis, Restoration department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, Egypt, 2015/2016.
Rabea Radi Abdel Kader and Shaimaa Sayed Mohamed, " The study of ground water effect and risks on the safety of the Archaeological Islamic buildings in Egypt applied on Azabk El-Youssefi Madrasa'', Built Heritage 2013 Monitoring Conservation Management, Italy, PP: 1212-1216.
Honeyborne, B. D., "Weathering and decay of masonry "in" conservation of building and decorative stone", first publish, Butterworth Heinemann, Great Britain, 1990.
Oliver, A., "Dampness in buildings", BSP publishers, 1998.
Mitchell, R.,"The role of micro-organisms in the deterioration of atmospheric pollutants of stone used in historic buildings and monuments ", Harvard university, Division of engineering &applied sciences, January 2001.
Kumar, R., et al., "Biodeterioration of stone in tropical environments", the Getty conservation institute, 1999.
Johnson, J. S., "Soluble salts and deterioration of archaeological materials", national park service, Washington, August 1998.
Ismail, B.,"Environmental deterioration and conservation of monumental basalt, Egypt", Bull Enviro. Res. Vol 7, No. 1, Assiut.
Charola, A. E., "Salts in the deterioration of porous materials "An overview, in JAIC 39, 2000.