In the 19th-century Egypt had a strong earthquake leads to damage of several mural paintings. Mural paintings in Ali kadkhoda house (El Rabiemaya), in Cairo, Egypt were among the affected. According to these damages the mural paintings were pre-consolidated and covered by medical gauze and animal glue as an adhesive under extremely dangerous conditions. The traditional conservation methodology as hot water, and acrylics that carried on these mural paintings to strip the medical gauze and animal glue showed no positive results and caused removal of the pigments. Viable bacterial cells of Pseudomonas stutzeri, were used with Broth- animal glue media mixed with agar as a delivery system (gel material) to remove the polymerized animal glue only in 3hours at 35°C. The effectiveness of the bio-cleaning test was assessed. The results confirmed the success of this cleaning biotechnology to remove the animal glue as an organic matter without side effects on the mural paintings pigments. The Bio-restoration technique was safe, low-cost, non-invasive, time saving, and risk-free. Silver nano particles were used to sterilization the mural paintings after final step in the bio-restoration process to insure the death of bacterial cells. At the end, the mural paintings were characterized using SEM-EDX, FTIR, and XRD.
Abeer Fouad ElHagrassy,
Bio-Restoration of Mural Paintings Using Viable Cells of Pseudomonas stutzeri and Characterization of These Murals, International Journal of Archaeology.
Vol. 7, No. 1,
2019, pp. 8-16.
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